The 33rd Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, was held on July 25-27, 2022. Since the COVID pandemic was abating, the meeting was in-person only, the first time since 2019. There were 616 registrants from 13 countries, including 274 students. The total number of oral and poster presentations was 504. The meeting consisted of a Monday morning plenary, 55 parallel technical sessions and a poster session. The plenary session, “Emerging Women Leaders in AM” featured six outstanding mid-career researchers. Following the plenary session was a panel
during which the plenary leaders discussed aspects of their research further.
The recipient of the 2022 International Outstanding Young Researcher in Freeform and Additive Manufacturing
Award was Dr. Filomeno Martina, CEO of WAAM3D. Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis from the University of
Southern California won the International Freeform and Additive Manufacturing Excellence (FAME) Award.
There are 130 papers in this conference proceedings. Papers marked “REVIEWED” in the title area were peer reviewed by two external reviewers. We have sequentially numbered the pages of the papers to facilitate citation. Manuscripts for this and all preceding SFF Symposia are available for free download below and at the conference website: https://www.sffsymposium.org; select the “Proceedings Archive” pull-down menu item.
The editors would like to thank the Organizing Committee, the session chairs, the attendees for their enthusiastic participation, and the speakers both for their significant contribution to the meeting and for the relatively prompt delivery of the manuscripts comprising this volume. We are grateful to TMS conference management staff for their significant contributions to the meeting planning and proceedings production, particularly Trudi Dunlap and Tess De Jong. We look forward to the continued close cooperation of the additive manufacturing community in organizing the Symposium. We also want to thank the National Science Foundation (CMMI-2005490) for supporting this meeting financially by providing 94 student registration fee waivers.
Dave Bourell has been a member of the Conference Organizing Committee from the beginning in
1990. In 1995, he took over as the Chair of the Organizing Committee, a position he has held for 28
years, through this 2022 meeting. He has retired from The University of Texas at Austin effective
September 1, 2022. He also stepped down as the Conference Chair. Dave expressed gratitude to the AM
community for its commitment to the SFF Symposium over the years and for all the excellent connections
made at the conference. Professor Joe Beaman took over as the Chair of the Organizing Committee effective
September 1, 2022.
The next SFF Symposium is planned to be in person on August 14-16, 2023 at the Hilton Austin Hotel in
Austin, Texas USA. The conference website will become active in mid-January 2023.
(2022) Ravichander, B.B.; Jagdale, S.H.; Theeda, S.; Kumar, G.
The development of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques, in particular the laser powder
bed fusion (LPBF) process, has led to an increase in the innovative design and fabrication of
lightweight and complex porous metal structures. Despite the limitations of the LPBF process
which limits the geometric accuracy of the porous structures, it eliminates the difficulties presented
by conventional manufacturing techniques in the fabrication of highly complex structures. The
properties of as-built porous structures depend on the unit cell design and porosity level. These
lightweight metal structures have applications in medical and aerospace fields. The relationships
between the lattice geometry and performance must be determined to successfully implement the
functional lattice designs. In this study, functionally graded lattice structures are fabricated from
steel using SLM technique and the effect of different lattice types on the manufacturability, density
and mechanical properties are investigated.
Lattice structures are increasingly being chosen for lightweight applications due to their high strength-
to-weight ratio and energy absorption capability. This work investigates the mechanical performance of the
Schwarz-Primitive (SP) lattices with a range of unit-cell sizes and relative densities. The SP lattices were
fabricated using material extrusion with ASA (industrial grade) and ABS material, then tested along different
orientations to build direction. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was utilised to measure the local strain and
deformation mechanism. The preliminary results indicate that stiffness and strength were related to densities
abiding the Ashby-Gibson model in well-controlled tight bands, which will help inform design decisions
for future adoption. Further experiments will be conducted to extend the finding of this study, gain a better
understanding of graded lattices and provide insights on the potential use of fibre reinforcement in lattices.
This paper presents the design and analysis of an optimized transtibial prosthetic socket
developed using the ground structure method of topology optimization (GSM). The socket wall
between the distal 25% of the original socket and a proximal brim is replaced with an optimized
truss geometry and a thin wall (1 mm). Separate trusses are developed for the loading conditions
of three critical stances: heel strike, vertical (standing), and toe-off. The truss models are combined
with critical components to create the final design. The proposed socket is 81.58% of the original
socket volume and is designed for manufacturing using Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and nylon-
12. The socket design is analyzed, with the material properties for sintered nylon-12, at 10%
increments between heel strike and toe-off to determine the viability of both the socket and the
corresponding methodology. Simulation results indicate that the design exceeds requirements for
all tested stances.
(2022) Jaksch, A.; Spinola, M.; Cholewa, C.; Pflug, L.; Stingl, M.; Drummer, D.
to fully realizing the potential of lightweight design in powder bed fusion of polymers (PBF-LB/P). In
this work, parts built with rectangular cross sections of different sizes and orientations are described by their
geometry, surface roughness, mechanical characteristics, and specific component geometry dependent on energy
input. Experimental findings are supported by a nonlocal material model developed to adequately describe
weakened material behavior at the surface of PBF-LB/P parts. This approach allows the simulation of the elastic
modulus and density for complex part geometries while simultaneously considering boundary effects.
Furthermore, the volume-surface ratio for thin-walled components were linearly correlated to the rectangular
cross sections in different building orientations. This uniformity indicates that this ratio is a suitable quantity to
consider. Therefore, the process knowledge is improved, especially in new design standards for thin-walled
structures in PBF-LB/P.
The Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process is an Additive Manufacturing (AM)
technology. In the FDM process, components are generated by feeding a thermoplastic polymer
filament into a heated nozzle and depositing the molten material layer-by-layer in a defined
way onto the building platform or an already existing component structure. The strand-by-
strand deposition leads to a complex cooling situation which contributes to the non-uniform
shrinkage of components in the FDM-process. Using an AM plug-in for the FEM-simulation
software Abaqus, the thermal and mechanical aspects of a component can be simulated
according to the temporal sequence of the manufacturing process. For this, the birth-death-
method is used in the simulations. During the investigations, the simulation results regarding
geometrical deviations are compared to the actual deviation of the manufactured specimens.
Furthermore, the influences of the mesh resolution on the simulation results and the required
time for the simulations are considered.
(2022) Gartner, P.; Krischke, N.; Benfer, M.; Bender, M.; Lanza, G.; Fleischer, J.; Dost, G.
Traceability is widely recognized as a core enabler of many industry 4.0 technologies. The
necessary identification of products is often realized through label-based systems, but tracing
products with particular geometric constraints that prohibit the use of such systems remains an
issue. A promising alternative of label based identification is the pattern based identification. This
contribution portrays a novel method to utilize fluorescent particles integrated in polymer-based
products and optical pattern recognition to facilitate the identification of products with specific
geometric constraints. The particles are integrated into the polymer and the unique random
distribution of fluorescent particles triggered by an LED flash is used to recognize individual
products. To demonstrate the approach, polymer-based gear wheels were printed using ARBURG
plastic freeforming and an automatic identification system was designed. The presented approach
could be a reliable alternative to other surface-structure-based approaches for product identification
and enable comprehensive tracing of components throughout value-chains.
Through advancements in technology over the last several years, additive manufacturing has become
increasingly mainstream in the manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing has several traits which would
theoretically make it superior to traditional subtractive manufacturing techniques. While this ability to
manufacture complex parts is certainly applicable to the external structure, additive manufacturing will allow for
control over the internal structure of a part as well. From this, porous components can be created which match
desired mechanical properties somewhat independently of the material actually used for manufacturing. However,
many of these advancements require further refinement of the additive manufacturing processes intrinsic to them.
One of the techniques suggested as a method of improving additive manufacturing processes is the incorporation
of magnets into the manufacturing process. These magnets are used to direct the flow of the melted metal with
more precision. Experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of the introduction of magnets on
parts printed using Laser Powder Bed Fusion. Stainless steel 316L, a relatively cheap and easy to print steel, was
printed onto a Ti64 substrate using both spot welding and line scanning. It was observed that magnets had an
effect on the melt pool and the keyhole depth through an analysis of the spot welding. Additionally, the various
magnets also changed the flow of particles in the melted areas generated through line scanning. While quantifying
the magnetic fields' effects will require additional research and time, there is strong evidence that they could be a
viable solution to increasing additive manufacturing’s precision.
Additive Manufacturing processes are able to generate components from raw material
(filament, powder etc.) without the need of tools or conventional machining. One of the most
common Additive Manufacturing processes is the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Here, a
thermoplastic polymer filament is fed into a heated nozzle where the filament is plasticized.
The plasticized material is then deposited, layer-by-layer onto the building platform or the
already existing component structure in a defined way. Thermoplastic polymers show a material
specific shrinkage induced by the cooling process. The recurring heat input by depositing
adjacent strands results in a complex cooling situation which contributes to the non-uniform
shrinkage of the component. In the investigations, first, a Design of Experiments (DoE) is
carried out to determine the influence of selected process parameters on the shrinkage behavior
of the raster lines. Following, the geometrical deviations of simple geometries under
consideration of different process parameters are determined and analyzed.
The reliability of parts produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is still not at a great
acceptance level. One of the major defects inherited in parts fabricated from L-PBF is a high level
of residual stress. In this study, two build orientations i.e., vertical and diagonal, were used to
fabricate Inconel 625 specimens to observe its effects on the residual stress magnitude and grain
growth. A novel, Cos-α X-ray diffraction method was used to measure residual stress values along
the top surface of the samples. Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and kernel average
misorientation (KAM) maps were employed to explain residual stress trends and differences
between samples. Results indicate that the as-printed vertical sample possessed a higher tensile
residual stress (77 ± 15 MPa) compared to the diagonally-printed sample (52 ± 12 MPa). The KAM
map of the as-printed vertically oriented sample showed more pronounced local misorientations
caused by dislocations compared to the diagonally-printed sample.
Pre-heating is a common requirement for production tooling in applications such as
compression and injection molding. While the carbon fiber reinforcements commonly used in
large-area additive manufacturing improve the thermal conductivity of polymers, they are still far
below that of metal tooling. This study presents a method for direct, local Joule heating of tooling
without the need for additional heating elements. A current is induced in the composite tooling,
resulting in resistance heating of the substrate. High conductivity material is locally embedded to
achieve local control over the heating characteristics. Embedding of the conductive material is
accomplished by selectively switching material compositions during the printing process.
Demonstration tooling is produced using hybrid additive and subtractive manufacturing using an
AMBIT XTRUDE in a HAAS machining center and evaluated with thermal imaging. Direct
heating of tooling expands the potential applications of additive manufacturing by overcoming the
challenges of low thermal conductivity materials.