2013 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium

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Proceedings for the 2013 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. For more information about the symposium, please see the Solid Freeform Fabrication website.

The Twenty-Fourth Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, held at The University of Texas in Austin on August 12-14, 2013, was attended by 219 researchers from 12 countries. The meeting consisted of plenary and parallel technical sessions. Three special topics were organized into single plenary sessions: “Cyber- enabled Manufacturing Systems for AM”, “Qualification, Verification and Certification” and “Micro- and Nano-AM”.

This year’s best oral presentation was entitled, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Multiple Droplet Interactions during Impingement on the Substrate”, authored by Wenchao Zhou, Drew Loney, Andrei G. Fedorov, F. Levent Degertekin and David W. Rosen from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Selection is based on the overall quality of the paper, the presentation and discussion at the meeting, the significance of the work and the manuscript submitted to the proceedings. Selected from 102 oral presentations, the associated manuscript appears on Page 606. The best poster presentation selected from 16 posters was given by Monica Cadena, Alejandro Hinojos, Sara M. Gaytan, David Bentley, Francisco Medina and Ryan Wicker from The University of Texas at El Paso. Titled, “Characterization of 17-4 PH SS Fabricated by Powder Bed Fusion”.

The recipient of the International Outstanding Young Researcher in Freeform and Additive Manufacturing Award was Dr. April Cooke, presently employed by Paramount Industries, a 3D Systems Corporation Company. Dr. David Rosen won the International Freeform and Additive Manufacturing Excellence (FAME) Award. He is a professor at Georgia Institute of Technology.

The editors would like to extend a warm “Thank You” to Rosalie Foster for her detailed handling of the logistics of the meeting, as well as her excellent performance as registrar and problem solver during the meeting. We are grateful to Mr. Lars Jacquemetton for handling the logistics of proceedings manuscript review as well as most other aspects of the proceedings undertaking. We would like to thank the Organizing Committee, the session chairs, the attendees for their enthusiastic participation, and the speakers both for their significant contribution to the meeting and for the relatively prompt delivery of the manuscripts comprising this volume. We look forward to the continued close cooperation of the additive manufacturing community in organizing the Symposium. We also want to thank the Office of Naval Research (N00014-13-1-0420) and the National Science Foundation (CMMI-1331096) for supporting this meeting financially. The meeting was co-organized by The University of Connecticut at Storrs, and the Mechanical Engineering Department and the Lab for Freeform Fabrication under the aegis of the Advanced Manufacturing Center at The University of Texas at Austin.

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    2013 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Table of Contents
    (2013) Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication and University of Texas at Austin
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    Ranking Model for 3D Printing
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Perez, Mireya A.; Ramos, Jorge; Espalin, David; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Wicker, Ryan B.
    The capabilities of desktop additive manufacturing (AM) machines were evaluated based on the ability to produce a standard component. This work also developed a model/method for evaluating and ranking AM technologies based on select criteria that can facilitate purchasing decisions. A standard part was adapted and printed on each machine, and evaluated in various ways to provide machine-specific input data for the model. The research highlights the differences between AM units and suggests a method by which to evaluate the differences. With the rapid proliferation of desktop additive manufacturing units, a quantitative ranking system was developed to rate these units so that the consumer, for example, can use this model to assist with decision making during purchase. Although the focus of the work was on desktop systems, the approach can be applied across other AM technologies.
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    Design and Assessment of an AM Vending Machine for Student Use
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Meisel, Nicholas A.; Williams, Christopher B.
    Due to prohibitive costs, access to Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies at academic institutions tends to be limited to upper-level courses that feature significant project-based coursework, such as capstone design. However, with the decreasing cost of desktop-scale AM technology, there is potential to improve student access to such technologies throughout a student’s undergraduate career, and thus provide more opportunities for AM education. In this poster, the authors present the design and implementation of an AM “vending machine” that is powered by desktop-scale extrusion-based AM systems. The resulting machine allows for unrestricted student use of AM equipment, and thus provides ample opportunity for informal learning regarding AM. The results of a formal assessment of student use of the machine are presented.
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    Potentials of Additive Manufacturing to Prevent Product Piracy
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013-08-16) Jahnke, U.; Lindemann, C.; Moi, M.; Koch, R.
    Infringements of intellectual and industrial properties rights in terms of imitations of products are continuously increasing. Massive economic and reputational damages are consequences for concerned companies. One solution to this problem can be the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. This production technology enables complex designed products and specific product properties due to the use of different manufacturing processes and materials, which can help preventing product piracy safety measures of products can highly benefit from these capabilities, which have not been possible yet. The layer wise process allows, for example, to implement identifiable marks under the parts surface and to adjust mechanical properties in a certain way. The use of AM can strongly reduce the economic efficiency of plagiarism. This paper will present approaches to product piracy prevention by the use of AM focusing on the tagging of products, preventive measures as well as the interplay of these types.
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    Selective Laser Sintering of Negative Stiffness Mesostructures for Recoverable, Nearly-Ideal Shock Isolation
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Klatt, Timothy; Haberman, Michael; Conner Seepersad, Carolyn
    Honeycomb materials are well known for providing lightweight stiffness, strength, and energy absorption capabilities. For most honeycomb materials, energy absorption occurs when individual cells collapse progressively. Although it is possible for honeycombs with very low relative density to collapse via elastic buckling, honeycombs with typical relative densities collapse due to plastic yielding and buckling of the cell walls, such that the energy absorption is nonrecoverable. In this paper, mono-stable negative stiffness unit cells are investigated for constructing honeycomb mesostructures with high levels of recoverable energy absorption. Negative stiffness is achieved by incorporating curved beams into each unit cell. When subject to transverse loading, the curved beams exhibit negative stiffness behavior as they transition from one curved geometry to another in a snap-through type of motion that absorbs energy elastically at a relatively constant plateau stress. The plateau stress at which this energy absorption occurs can be tailored via the geometry of the unit cell. Preliminary experiments indicate that the structures can absorb significant amounts of energy by requiring nearly-constant-force to increase deformation as the structure transitions between snap-through configurations. Unlike traditional honeycombs, the negative stiffness mesostructures are self-resettable and therefore reusable. Using SLS as a means of fabrication, they can also be customized for specific shock events and even functionally graded to offer shock isolation for transient loads of various amplitudes.
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    Impact and Influence Factors of Additive Manufacturing on Product Lifecycle Costs
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013-08-16) Lindemann, C.; Jahnke, U.; Moi, M.; Koch, R.
    At first sight the direct costs of Additive Manufacturing (AM) seem too high in comparison to traditional manufacturing. Considering the whole lifecycle costs of parts changes the point of view. Due to the modification of the new production process and new supply chains during a parts lifecycle, producing companies can strongly benefit from AM. Therefore, a costing model for assessing lifecycle costs with regard to specific applications and branches has been developed. The costing model represents the advantages of AM monetary. For the evaluation of this model and the influence factors, different case studies have been performed including different approaches in part redesign. Deeper research is and will be carried out with respect to the AM building rates and the comparability of various AM machines, as these facts are hardly comparable for end users. This paper will present the methodology as well as the results of the case studies conducted over the whole product lifecycle.
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    Multiple-Material Topology Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms Created via Polyjet 3D Printing
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Meisel, Nicholas A.; Gaynor, Andrew; Williams, Christopher B.; Guest, James K.
    Compliant mechanisms are able to transfer motion, force, and energy using a monolithic structure without discrete hinge elements. The geometric design freedoms and multi-material capability offered by the PolyJet 3D printing process enables the fabrication of compliant mechanisms with optimized topology. The inclusion of multiple materials in the topology optimization process has the potential to eliminate the narrow, weak, hinge-like sections that are often present in single-material compliant mechanisms. In this paper, the authors propose a design and fabrication process for the realization of 3-phase, multiple-material compliant mechanisms. The process is tested on a 2D compliant force inverter. Experimental and theoretical performance of the resulting 3-phase inverter is compared against a standard 2-phase design.
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    Combining Additive Manufacturing and Direct Write for Integrated Electronics – A Review
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Perez, K. Blake; Williams, Christopher B.
    Direct write (DW) of conductive materials in the context of Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables embedded electronics within fabricated parts. Previous works use manual, hybrid, and native material patterning systems to deposit conductive materials in parts fabricated by different AM technologies. This capability could eliminate cabled interconnects and redundant electronics packaging, resulting in a significant reduction of mass and assembly complexity. In this paper, the authors explore applications of DW of conductive traces in the context of AM, review prior work in the integration, and analyze the technical roadblocks facing their hybridization. Barriers to integrating the two technology classes include material, process, and post-process compatibilities.
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    3D Printing of Electro Mechanical Systems
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Aguilera, Efrain; Ramos, Jorge; Espalin, David; Cedillos, Fernando; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan; MacDonald, Eric
    Recent research has focused on the fabrication freedom of 3D printing to not only create conceptual models but final end-use products as well. By democratizing the manufacturing process, products will inevitably be fabricated locally and with unit-level customization. For 3D printed end-use products to be profoundly meaningful, the fabrication technologies will be required to enhance the structures with additional features such as electromechanical content. In the last decade, several research groups have reported embedding electronic components and electrical interconnect into 3D printed structures during process interruptions. However, to date there appears to be an absence of fabricated devices with electromechanical functionality in which moving parts with electronic control have been created within a single Additive Manufacturing (AM) build sequence. Moreover, previously reported 3D printed electronics were limited by the use of conductive inks, which serve as electrical interconnect and are commonly known for inadequate conductivity. This paper describes the fabrication of a high current (>1 amp) electromechanical device through a single hybrid AM build sequence using a uPrint Plus, a relatively low cost 3D. Additionally, a novel integrated process for embedding high performance conductors directly into the thermoplastic FDM substrate is demonstrated. By avoiding low conductivity inks, high power electromechanical applications are enabled such as 3D printed robotics, UAVs and biomedical devices.
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    Manufacture of Functionally Gradient Materials using Weld-Deposition
    (University of Texas at Austin, 2013) Suryakumar, S.; Somashekara, A.
    When the inherent inhomogeneity of Additive Manufacturing techniques is carefully exploited, the anisotropy transforms into the desired distribution of the properties paving the way for manufacture of Functionally Gradient Materials. The present work focuses on using weld-deposition based Additive Manufacturing techniques to realize the same. Mechanical properties like hardness and tensile strength can be controlled by a smaller degree through control of process parameters like current, layer thickness etc. A wider control of material properties can be obtained with the help of tandem weld-deposition setup like twin-wire. In tandem twin-wire weld-deposition, two filler wires (electrodes) are guided separately and it is possible to control each filler wire separately. The investigations done on these two approaches are presented in paper.