Browsing Texas Natural History Collection - Fishes - Publications by Title
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ItemAn Alternative Shelving Arrangement for Natural History Collection Objects to Optimize Space and Task Efficiency(Allen Press, 2019-09-01) Cohen, Adam; Hendrickson, Dean; Casarez, MelissaA taxonomic and alphabetic arrangement (TAA) of objects on shelves has prevailed in fluid-preserved natural history collections while they were managed by scientists for their own research. Now most collections are databased and internet-accessible to facilitate very different forms of research accomplished remotely by researchers who require less physical access to specimens. The collections staff who make those data available struggle to manage collection growth with limited space and budgets, while demands on them are increasing, necessitating task and space-efficient collection management solutions. We describe an alternative arrangement of objects based on their size and catalog number (OCA) that capitalizes on modern databases. Our partial implementation of this system facilitated pragmatic between-system comparisons of space use and staff time required for routine tasks. Our OCA allows 17% more jars to be stored in a given space than a TAA (not counting spaces left for growth), but adjusting vertical spacing of shelves could increase that to 115%. Ten of 15 staff tasks were more efficiently accomplished in the OCA section of the collection, and we propose ways to improve efficiency for three of the four tasks for which the TAA outperformed the OCA. ItemAmerican Eel in Texas – what we do, don’t, and need to, know(2016-01-22) Hendrickson, Dean A.; Cohen, Adam E.; Labay, Ben; Garrett, Gary P.; Casarez, Melissa; Martin, F. DouglasAmerican Eel is undoubtedly one of the most studied freshwater fishes of North America. Many recent discoveries have added new insights that re-write important aspects of the “text book” knowledge of the species’ complex life history in ways that could have significant impacts on management. Despite all of this new information, debate about the species’ conservation status continues, and new threats, such as continued habitat loss and major clandestine fisheries driven by extremely high value in the global market, have further complicated management. Though USFWS recently decided that the species does not merit listing as “Endangered,” in 2012 Canada changed that country’s assessment of the species’ status from “Special Concern” (since 2006) to “Threatened” and IUCN upped its classification in 2013 to “Endangered.” Ontario has considered it “Endangered” since 2007. All U.S. Atlantic states vowed to work together to produce, in 1999, the American Eel Benchmark Stock Assessment, which mandated each state conduct standardized monitoring of recruitment and later, mandatory catch and effort monitoring. Given all that activity and data generation, it is remarkable that still so little is known about the populations of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and its tributary rivers that making any management decisions in that large, neglected part of the species’ range is virtually impossible. The Fishes of Texas Project team has been collating and improving the limited and scattered data on occurrences of the species in the region and concludes it important to promote a broad scale (Gulf of Mexico) collaborative community effort to acquire and share data and carefully curated specimens and, hopefully, develop a GOM-wide collaborative research and management plan like that implemented by Atlantic states. Here we’ll review the literature and state of knowledge about the species in Texas and GOM, and suggest ways to begin work toward such an effort. ItemAmerican Eels in Texas – a review of what is known, what is being done to learn more, and how you can help(2017-11-08) Hendrickson, Dean A.This presentation reviews the current status of knowledge about the American Eel, its conservation status and distribution in Texas, and work in progress to learn more about the species in Texas. ItemAn Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Texas, With Keys to Identification of Species(Texas Academy of Science, 2008-07) Hubbs, Clark; Edwards, Robert; Garrett, GaryForty-nine families and 268 species of fishes are known to inhabit the freshwaters of Texas. We report on the distribution and status of these fishes and provide a key to their identification. Of the native fishes originally found in Texas, five taxa, Cyprinella lutrensis blairi (Maravillas red shiner), Notropis orca (phantom shiner), N. simus simus (Rio Grande bluntnose shiner), Gambusia amistadensis (Amistad gambusia) and G. georgei (San Marcos gambusia) are apparently extinct, and four, Hybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), Notropis simus pecosensis (Pecos bluntnose shiner), Oncorhynchus clarki virginalis (Rio Grande cutthroat trout) and Gambusia senilis (blotched gambusia) appear to be extirpated from the state. Over 40 percent of the remaining primary freshwater species are of conservation concern and in some need of protection. ItemAn Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Texas, with Keys to Identification of Species(The Texas Journal of Science, 1991) Hubbs, Clark; Edwards, Robert J.; Garrett, Gary P.Forty-five families and 247 species of fishes are known to inhabit the freshwaters of Texas. We report on the distribution and status of these fishes and provide a key to their identification. Of the native fishes originally found in Texas, five taxa, Notropis orca (phantom shiner), Notropis simus simus (Rio Grande bluntnose shiner), Cyprinella lutrensis blairi (Maravillas red shiner), Gambusia amistadensis (Amistad gambusia) and Gambusia georgei (San Marcos gambusia) are apparently extinct, and three, Oncorhynchus clarki virginalis (Rio Grande cutthroat trout), Hybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow) and Gambusia senilis (blotched gambusia) appear to be extirpated from the state. More than 20 percent of the remaining primary freshwater species appear to be in some need of protection. ItemAssessing Historical Fish Community Composition Using Surveys, Historical Collection Data, and Species Distribution Models(Public Library of Science, 2011-09-22) Labay, Ben J.; Cohen, Adam E.; Sissel, Blake; Hendrickson, Dean A.; Martin, F. Douglas; Sarkar, SahotraAccurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i) historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii) a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii) a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs). This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI) to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining status of freshwater biotic communities. ItemBiodviersityof Mexican Trout (Teleostei: Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus): Recent findings, conservation concerns, and management recommendations(Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, 2004-09) Mayden, Richard L.Until very recently the diversity of trout in Mexican rivers of the Sierra Madre Occidental has been very poorly understood and only the Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and the Mexican Golden Trout, 0. chrysogaster, have been recognized. Recent efforts in the last decade by a binational organization of scientists and laypersons interested in the diversity and conservation of Mexican trout, Truchas Mexicanus, have revea led considerable diversity within the river systems of the Pacific Slope south to the Rio Acaponeta . These trout forms are highly differentiated and distinctive, and are considered native to these high-elevation river systems in pine-dominated forests. The increased occurrence of trout growout facilities and hatcheries within the range of these native Oncorhynchus and the escapes from these facilities threaten the native trout diversity through both introgressive hybridization and through resource competition, end products already known to occur in other trout populations in the other areas of North America exposed to exotic hatchery trout. Other threats to the native and previously unknown trout biodiversity in Mexico include timber harvesting, some pollutions associated with these activities, and siltation of critical habitats. Recommendations are provided to aid in the safe management and protection of this diversity which center around the future use of sterile trout in growout facilities and the use of undisturbed buffer zones along streams. The divergence observed in forms of Mexican trout is equivalent to the levels of divergence found between currently recognized subspecies of trout in the Rainbow and Cutthroat trout groups. Upon review of the diversity and divergence known to exist in these groups and our current understanding of conceptualizations of species, it is argued that the recognition of subspecies within these highly diverse trout lineages is inconsistent with the natural evolutionary history of these groups. The long-term use of the Biological Species Concept for these species is argued as not only inappropriate but an inadequate and illogical characterization of diversity. The logical consequences of hanging on to this concept as the operational and theoretical framework of trout diversity would necessitate the synonymization of all Rainbow and Cutthroat trout taxa as subspecies because of the known propensity of these groups to demonstrate introgressive hybridzation in some areas. These subspecies are considered va lid evolutionary lineages that are demonstrate divergence at morphological, genetic, and ecological characters that are well known to many trout taxonomists and biologists. All of these therefore qualify as Evolutionary Species that are easily diagnosable under the Phylogenetic Species Concept and should be recognized as valid species. ItemBiogeography of Cyprinodon across the Great Plains-Chihuahuan Desert region and adjacent areas(Desert Fishes Council, 2021) Hoagstrom, Christopher; Osborne, MeganCyprinodon is renowned for localized endemism across the North American desert. Competing molecular studies have made elucidating timing of diversification across the desert controversial. Debate has focused on Mojave Desert species, with limited evaluation of other evidence. However, the Great Plains and Chihuahuan Desert harbor more taxonomic diversity and are geographically positioned between the Gulf of México (place of origin for the genus) and Mojave Desert, making them central to understanding the evolution of all desert Cyprinodon. This study is a detailed assessment of evidence from literature spanning geomorphology, climate, and biogeography vis à vis the mtDNA phylogeny for Cyprinodon. Conclusions of Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene diversification are supported across all major clades. Future studies that could improve understanding and address ongoing dilemmas are identified. Importantly, the geography of each clade corresponds to drainage configurations and their evolution through the proposed period of diversification. Eight hypotheses are presented to address major evolutionary events, with emphasis on exploring interpretive challenges within the phylogeny. Broadly, aridity within the Late Miocene apparently facilitated inland invasion of coastal Cyprinodon along the ancestral Brazos River and Río Grande. The following Pliocene warm, wet period enabled survival and range expansion through aridland drainages and into adjacent ones. Mio-Pliocene development of the Río Grande Rift and Gila River drainages, causing inter-drainage transfers, was crucial to range expansion. Development of other Gulf of California drainages (Colorado River, Río Yaqui) played peripheral roles. Climatic cooling in the Quaternary Period evidently caused range contractions for populations living at higher latitudes and elevations. Living Cyprinodon of the desert represent an incredible legacy of Pliocene range expansion memorialized by subsequent persistence of tenacious endemic populations. Human impacts now threaten this legacy. ItemChanges in fish populations in the Lower Canyons of the Rio Grande(Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute, 2014) Garrett, Gary P.; Edwards, Robert J.The Lower Canyons of the Rio Grande suffer from environmental degradation that has negatively impacted native fish populations and their distributions. Macrhybopsis aestivalis (speckled chub), Notropis jemezanus (Rio Grande shiner), Rhinichthys cataractae (longnose dace) and Cycleptus elongatus (blue sucker) populations appear to have suffered recent declines. Although diminished water quantity is likely an important factor in these declines, related changes in channel morphology precipitated by massive stands of Arundo donax (giant reed) and Tamarix sp. (salt cedar) may also be responsible. These invasive exotics have essentially channelized the river, disrupted normal sediment distribution and reduced shallow, low-velocity habitats. Much of the Lower Canyons of the Rio Grande are devoid of sandy sediment and most riffles are now composed of gravel and cobble. ItemChecklist and Images Documenting the Biodiversity of Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge(2020-03-21) Rash, RyanIncluded are five pdf files documenting biodiversity on Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in the Pacific Ocean from June of 2019 through December of 2019. Most images are taken by Ryan Rash, but some were provided to him by others there cohabitating the island at the time. He, and a crew of 4 others were employed to work on the island by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to control and document the spread/containment of invasive yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes) and document their effects on native wildlife. The images here were taken by him during his off-time, as a side-project while working on the island. They were compiled and produced into the files provided here in the months after his deployment. The project aimed to record every species of animal and plant, preferably with a photograph sufficient for species determination, but in some cases, as indicated in the included checklist, species were noted without a photograph. In addition to the checklist, images were organized into a collection of four taxonomic presentations: (1) Fish; (2) Birds; (3) Plants; and (4) Herps, Inverts, and Mammals. Within each file, species are sorted alphabetically within their higher taxa, which are also sorted alphabetically for easy perusing. Johnston has a lengthy military history beginning in the early 1930s. Nuclear radiation and harmful chemicals like agent orange were stored there and have leaked out into the environment. These have since been remediated, but sometime in the early 2000s after the military left in 2004, yellow crazy ants infiltrated the island via driftwood—or more likely as incidental passengers on personal vessels hopping between the Pacific remote islands. The crazy ants quickly took over the island, proving especially detrimental for the resident red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) that nest on the ground. The ants began swarming the nesting tropicbirds and their chicks, spraying them with formic acid expelled through their acidopores. Tropicbirds, after being sprayed repeatedly in the eyes, were blinded and eventually perished only to be consumed by the ants. In 2010, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service researchers visited Johnston and discovered the infestation. They ended up creating a treatment plan later that year and sent out the first Crazy Ant Strike Team (CAST), and ever since there has been a crew of ~5 people on the island at all times (apart from hurricane evacuations). Thankfully, the pesticide treatment worked and yellow crazy ants haven’t been detected since December of 2017, but extensive monitoring has continued in order to be completely sure of their eradication. The last step in deeming the island free from crazy ants is bringing scent dogs out to survey for the formic acid scent trail, as the ants could have possibly taken up residence in underground plumbing and electrical conduit. This will hopefully occur at the end of this year. If everything goes to plan, the dogs won’t find anything and our confidence in eradication will be more well-founded. Johnston Atoll at the time of the infestation was home to the largest red-tailed tropicbird colony in the world with over 5,000 active nests. The entire island was just surveyed a month ago and that number has increased to over 10,800 active nests! It was important to save this atoll from the infestation, as it’s the only landmass for over 800,000 square miles of ocean and is one of the, if not the most, isolated landmasses in the world, and a key nesting/stopover point for many bird species.