Kepler-10 c: a 2.2 Earth Radius Transiting Planet in a Multiple System

dc.contributor.utaustinauthorCochran, William D.en_US
dc.creatorFressin, Francoisen_US
dc.creatorTorres, Guillermoen_US
dc.creatorDesert, Jean-Michelen_US
dc.creatorCharbonneau, Daviden_US
dc.creatorBatalha, Natalie M.en_US
dc.creatorFortney, Jonathan J.en_US
dc.creatorRowe, Jason F.en_US
dc.creatorAllen, Christopheren_US
dc.creatorBorucki, William J.en_US
dc.creatorBrown, Timothy M.en_US
dc.creatorBryson, Stephen T.en_US
dc.creatorCiardi, David R.en_US
dc.creatorCochran, William D.en_US
dc.creatorDeming, Drakeen_US
dc.creatorDunham, Edward W.en_US
dc.creatorFabrycky, Daniel C.en_US
dc.creatorGautier, Thomas N., IIIen_US
dc.creatorGilliland, Ronald L.en_US
dc.creatorHenze, Christopher E.en_US
dc.creatorHolman, Matthew J.en_US
dc.creatorHowell, Steve B.en_US
dc.creatorJenkins, Jon M.en_US
dc.creatorKinemuchi, Karenen_US
dc.creatorKnutson, Heatheren_US
dc.creatorKoch, David G.en_US
dc.creatorLatham, David W.en_US
dc.creatorLissauer, Jack J.en_US
dc.creatorMarcy, Geoffrey W.en_US
dc.creatorRagozzine, Darinen_US
dc.creatorSasselov, Dimitar D.en_US
dc.creatorStill, Martinen_US
dc.creatorTenenbaum, Peteren_US
dc.creatorUddin, Kamalen_US
dc.description.abstractThe Kepler mission has recently announced the discovery of Kepler-10 b, the smallest exoplanet discovered to date and the first rocky planet found by the spacecraft. A second, 45 day period transit-like signal present in the photometry from the first eight months of data could not be confirmed as being caused by a planet at the time of that announcement. Here we apply the light curve modeling technique known as BLENDER to explore the possibility that the signal might be due to an astrophysical false positive (blend). To aid in this analysis we report the observation of two transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 4.5 mu m. When combined, they yield a transit depth of 344 +/- 85 ppm that is consistent with the depth in the Kepler passband (376 +/- 9 ppm, ignoring limb darkening), which rules out blends with an eclipsing binary of a significantly different color than the target. Using these observations along with other constraints from high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, we are able to exclude the vast majority of possible false positives. We assess the likelihood of the remaining blends, and arrive conservatively at a false alarm rate of 1.6 x 10(-5) that is small enough to validate the candidate as a planet (designated Kepler-10 c) with a very high level of confidence. The radius of this object is measured to be R-p = 2.227(-0.057)(+ 0.052) R-circle plus (in which the error includes the uncertainty in the stellar properties), but currently available radial-velocity measurements only place an upper limit on its mass of about 20 M-circle plus. Kepler-10 c represents another example (with Kepler-9 d and Kepler-11 g) of statistical "validation" of a transiting exoplanet, as opposed to the usual "confirmation" that can take place when the Doppler signal is detected or transit timing variations are measured. It is anticipated that many of Kepler's smaller candidates will receive a similar treatment since dynamical confirmation may be difficult or impractical with the sensitivity of current instrumentation.en_US
dc.description.departmentMcDonald Observatoryen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA's Science Mission Directorateen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA through JPL/Caltechen_US
dc.identifier.citationFressin, François, Guillermo Torres, Jean-Michel Désert, David Charbonneau, Natalie M. Batalha, Jonathan J. Fortney, Jason F. Rowe et al. "Kepler-10 c: a 2.2 earth radius transiting planet in a multiple system." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 197, No. 1 (Nov., 2011): 5.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofserialAstrophysical Journal Supplement Seriesen_US
dc.rightsAdministrative deposit of works to Texas ScholarWorks: This works author(s) is or was a University faculty member, student or staff member; this article is already available through open access or the publisher allows a PDF version of the article to be freely posted online. The library makes the deposit as a matter of fair use (for scholarly, educational, and research purposes), and to preserve the work and further secure public access to the works of the University.en_US
dc.subjectbinaries: eclipsingen_US
dc.subjectplanetary systemsen_US
dc.subjectstars: individual (kepler-10,en_US
dc.subjectkoi-072, kic 11904151)en_US
dc.subjectstars: statisticsen_US
dc.subjectexoplanet hd 189733ben_US
dc.subjectsecondary eclipseen_US
dc.subjectblend scenariosen_US
dc.subjectlight curvesen_US
dc.subjectastronomy & astrophysicsen_US
dc.titleKepler-10 c: a 2.2 Earth Radius Transiting Planet in a Multiple Systemen_US

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