De Novo Design and Synthesis of Ultra-Short Peptidomimetic Antibiotics Having Dual Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Background: Much attention has been focused on the design and synthesis of potent, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their development into therapeutic agents has been limited mainly due to their large size (12 to 50 residues in length) and poor protease stability.-- Methodology/Principal Findings: In an attempt to overcome the issues described above, a set of ultra-short, His-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAMPs) has been developed for the first time. Through systematic tuning of pendant hydrophobic alkyl tails at the N(π)- and N(τ)-positions on His, and the positive charge of Arg, much higher prokaryotic selectivity was achieved, compared to human AMP LL-37. Additionally, the most potent HDAMPs showed promising dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as anti–methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity and proteolytic resistance. Our results from transmission electron microscopy, membrane depolarization, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and calcein-dye leakage experiments propose that HDAMP-1 kills microbial cells via dissipation of the membrane potential by forming pore/ion channels on bacterial cell membranes. -- Conclusion/Significance: The combination of the ultra-short size, high-prokaryotic selectivity, potent anti-MRSA activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and proteolytic resistance of the designed HDAMP-1, -3, -5, and -6 makes these molecules promising candidates for future antimicrobial therapeutics.
Binu Jacob, Song Yub Shin, Department of Bio-Materials, Graduate School and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
Hoik Sohn, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America
Hyo-Nam Park, Jae-Kyung Hyun, Division of Electron Microscopic Research, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Eunjung Lee, Ki-Woong Jeong, Yangmee Kim, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of SMART Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Ky-Youb Nam, Bioinformatics and Molecular Design Research Center, Yonsei University Research Complex, Seoul, Republic of Korea