ItemJuniperus of Canada and the United States: Taxonomy, Key and Distribution.(2019-12-20) Adams, Robert P.The taxonomy of Juniperus of Canada and the United States is reviewed and keys to the 18 species, 5 varieties and 3 formas are presented as well as distribution maps. Item(Vol. 20, 2017-12) Contribution to the Floristic Knowledge of the Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, Mexico.(2017-12) Munn-Estrada, Diana X.The Sierra Mazateca is located in the northern mountainous region of Oaxaca, Mexico, between the Valley of Tehuaca´n-Cuicatl´n and the Gulf Coastal Plains of Veracruz. It is part of the more extensive Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, a priority region for biological research and conservation efforts because of its high levels of biodiversity. A floristic study was conducted in the highlands of the Sierra Mazateca (at altitudes of ca. 1,000–2,750 m) between September 1999 and April 2002, with the objective of producing an inventory of the vascular plants found in this region. Cloud forests are the predominant vegetation type in the highland areas, but due to widespread changes in land use, these are found in different levels of succession. This contribution presents a general description of the sampled area and a checklist of the vascular flora collected during this study that includes 648 species distributed among 136 families and 389 genera. The five most species-rich angiosperm families found in the region are: Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, and Piperaceae, while the largest fern family is Polypodiaceae. Item(Vol. 20, 2017-12) The Vascular Flora of Lee County, Texas.(2017-12) Bergman, Cate M.Lee County is located in the Post Oak Savannah and Blackland Prairie vegetation areas of east-central Texas and encompasses 635 square miles (ca. 405,000 acres). A floristic survey of the vascular plants of Lee County, Texas, was conducted from November 2002 through March 2006 as a requirement for the Master’s Degree by the author in the Plant Biology Graduate Program at The University of Texas at Austin. The county was revisited in the summers of 2015 and 2017 to update information for publication. The physical and biotic settings, vegetational history, and previous collecting efforts are outlined. The checklist contains voucher collections from the present study as well as additional records from the TEX/LL, TAES, TAMU and BAYLU herbaria. The annotated checklist includes 732 species and infraspecific taxa, representing 427 genera and 122 families. The most species-rich families are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. No federally or state listed rare species were documented, although at least two species of conservation concern were collected within the county. Native species comprise about 89% of the county flora, and include 20 species endemic to Texas. The phytogeographic position of Lee County is discussed, with a prominent feature being its position at the extreme western edge of the distributions of many species typical of the southeastern U. S. flora. Item(Vol. 20, 2017-12) Nomenclatural Notes on the Andean Genera Pycnophyllopsis and Pycnophyllum (Caryophyllaceae).(2017-12) Timaná, Martín E.The nomenclature of the high Andean genera Pycnophyllopsis Skottsb. and Pycnophyllum J. R´emy is examined. Eight species of Pycnophyllopsis are recognized; lectotypes or neotypes are selected when required; a new species, Pycnophyllopsis smithii is proposed and two new combinations are made. The genus Plettkea Mattf. is reduced to a synonym of Pycnophyllopsis. Ten species of Pycnophyllum are accepted, including a new species, Pycnophyllum huascaranum and lectotypes or neotypes are selected when needed. Item(Vol. 20, 2017-12) Perymenium vandevenderorum (Asteraceae), a New Species From Sonora, Mexico.(2017-12) Turner, Billie L.A novel species of Perymenium from Sonora, Mexico is described. It appears to be closest to P. nesomii from southwestern Chihuahua, with which it is compared. A map showing distribution of the two taxa is provided. Item(Vol. 19, 2016-12) Cynoglossum creticum in the North American Flora(2016-12) Bowe, L. Michelle; Yatskievych, GeorgeThe naturalized North American distribution of the Old World native, Cynoglossum creticum Mill. (Boraginaceae), is detailed. The species has now been documented from a number of sites in six counties in Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas, as well as from the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Zacatecas. Item(Vol. 19, 2016-12) Molecular Phylogeny of Pectis (Tageteae, Asteraceae), A C4 Genus of the Neotropics, and its Sister Genus Porophyllum(2016-12) Hansen, Debra R.; Jansen, Robert K.; Sage, Rowan F.; Villaseñor, José Luis; Simpson, Beryl B.Pectis is a genus of 690 xeric adapted New World species. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Pectis closely related to Porophyllum, and one analysis resolved Porophyllum species nested within Pectis. Some Pectis species are known to use C4 photosynthesis. Here we investigate the phylogeny of Pectis and Porophyllum, examine the ploidy levels and geographical distribution of Pectis species in light of its phylogeny, and infer the origin and extent of C4 photosynthesis in both genera. Chloroplast and ITS data from 78 Pectis and 22 Porophyllum species were used to test the monophyly of Pectis and its previously described sections. Carbon isotope data were obtained to infer the photosynthetic pathway of 80 species, and the results mapped on the inferred phylogenies to determine the timing and pattern of evolution of the C4 pathway. The ITS dataset supports a monophyletic Pectis sister to a monophyletic Porophyllum, while the chloroplast dataset places two Porophyllum species sister to a combined Pectis+Porophyllum clade. Five well-supported lineages are recovered in Pectis. All Pectis sampled have L13C values consistent with C4 photosynthesis, and all Porophyllum species sampled have L13C values consistent with C3 photosynthesis. We conclude that Pectis is monophyletic but only two of its recognized sections are monophyletic. Porophyllum is monophyletic but its sections are not. Porophyllum amplexicaule and Pr. scoparium should be treated as members of a new genus. The switch to the C4 pathway in Pectis happened in the late Miocene, probably in north/central Mexico, at or after the divergence of Pectis and Porophyllum. This location and timing is consistent with the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in other North American eudicot lineages, suggesting similar environmental conditions may underlie the switch to C4 photosynthesis. Item(Vol. 19, 2016-12) Arenaria lanuginosa (Caryophyllaceae), Taxonomic Status and Distribution.(2016-12) Turner, Billie L.The geographic and morphological parameters of the widespread Arenaria lanuginosa are explored with the conclusion that in North America the species consists of two, largely allopatric, intergrading varieties: A. l. var. saxosa of the southwestern USA and northwestern Mexico, and A. l. var. lanuginosa of southern Mexico and Central America, extending into South America, where it is widespread, the Caribbean Islands, and the southeastern USA (perhaps introduced). Leaf forms occur in both taxa, these often treated as distinct populational taxa. Additionally, the taxonomic reality of A. gypsostrata, related to the A. lanuginosa complex, is reconfirmed. Item(Vol. 09, 2006-12) Mutisieae (Asteraceae) Pollen Ultrastructure Atlas(2006-12) Zhao, Zaiming; Skvarla, John J.; Jansen, Robert K.The tribe Mutisieae (excluding Barnadesieae) traditionally comprises 84 genera and approximately 900 species in three subtribes: Gochnatiinae, Mutisiinae, and Nassauviinae. We examined whole and fractured pollen grains of 51 genera from these subtribes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Additionally, we also examined 11 genera (Adenocaulon, Berardia, Brachylaeana, Cratystylis, Dipterocome, Eriachaenium, Gymnarrhena, Hesperomannia, Hoplophyllum, Tarchonanthus, and Warionia) whose tribal positions have been controversial. We present detailed tables of pollen characters for each taxon and 13 plates of SEM photos ofrepresentative taxa. We also provide limited discussion of pollen variation in the subbribes Gochnatiinae, Mutisiinae, and assauviinae and the tribal and subfamilial placement of the 11 problematic genera. Item(Vol. 09, 2006-12) Species-Area Relationships Indicate Large-Scale Data Gaps in Herbarium Collections(2006-12) Williams, Justin K.Species-area relationships (SAR) are useful in predicting species richness for a given geographical area. Using SAR and the state of Texas as a case study, we present a model that provides a quantifiable and objective approach for identifying large scale data gaps in species inventories and museum collections by comparing documented species richness (determined by herbarium records) to predicted species richness. For Texas our results indicate that 88% of the counties have documented species richness values that are below predicted values based upon our results from the proposed model. Many biological survey and inventory programs are funded to document species occurrence and richness. Such studies help identify species of concern and enhance species conservation efforts. Future species inventories may benefit from such predictive models in identifying regions of large scale data gaps. Item(Vol. 09, 2006-12) Species Of Philadelphus (Hydrangeaceae) From Trans-Pecos Texas(2006-12) Turner, Billie L.Three species of Philadelphus are accepted as occurring in Trans-Pecos, Texas: P. mearnsii, P. microphyllus, and P. serpyllifolius. Philadelphus mearnsii is known only from Culberson and El Paso counties; P. microphyllus and P. serpyllifolius are more widespread. Philadelphus microphyllus is treated as having three intergrading varieties: Philadelphus microphyllus var. argenteus, P. m. var. crinitus (C. L. Hitchc.) B. L. Turner, and P. m. var. microphyllus. Philadelphus serpyllifolius is treated as having two intergrading varieties: Philadelphus serpyllifolius var. intermedius B.L. Turner, and P. s. var. serpyllifolius. Maps showing their distributions in the area concerned are provided. Item(Vol. 09, 2006-12) Three New Species of Ageratina (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Oaxaco, Mexico and a Key to the A. Mairetiana Complex(2006-12) Turner, Billie L.Three new species of Ageratina subg. Neogreenella are described from Mexico, as follows: Ageratina mayajana, from Mpio. San Miguel Chimalapa, Oaxaca; Ageratina mazatecana, from Mpio. Santa Maria Chilchotla, Oaxaca; and Ageratina pochutlana from Districto Pochutla, Oaxaca. Although all of the taxa belong to the A. subg. Neogreenella, only the latter two relate to the A. mairetiana complex as defined by Turner (1987, 1997). A revised key to that complex is provided. Item(Vol. 09, 2006-12) A Synopsis of the Genus Hoffmannseggia (Leguminosae)(2006-12) Simpson, Beryl B.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.The genus Hoffmannseggia Cav., now recognized as a monophyletic group distinct from Caesalpinia and Pomaria, consists of 22 species and is amphitropically distributed between North and South America, with 11 species in arid and semi-arid areas of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico, and 12 species in southern South America. Recent publications have provided a revision of Hoffmannseggia for North America, a resolved phylogeny, and an analysis of the biogeography of the genus, but there is to date no treatment of all of the taxa. Here we present a key to the genus and its closest relatives, a key to all of the recognized taxa, typification, distributional data for each species, selected specimens examined for the South American taxa, and notes where appropriate. Item(Vol. 08, 2005-12) Two New Species of Polygala (Polygalaceae) from Western Mexico(2005-12) Wendt, TomTwo new species of Polygala subgenus Polygala (Polygalaceae) are described from western Mexico. Polygala mcvaughii is related to P. subalata, from which it differs by its shorter, broader racemes, longer pedicels, and always annual habit, and to P. conferta, differing from that species by its larger seeds and larger, usually ± non-stipitate fruits. It is known from 1200-2250 m in Michoacan, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, and extreme southern Zacatecas. Polygala tellezii belongs to a group of species in which a reduced or no aril and short seed hairs are the norm, and in which a vegetative vestiture of minute capitate hairs is common. This new species is in some ways morphologically most similar to the South American P. exigua, but it is perhaps most closely related to the sympatric P. glochidiata, from which it differs in its entirely alternate leaves and non-uncinate seed hairs. Polygala tellezii is known only from three localities in lowland savannas in southern Nayarit. Item(Vol. 08, 2005-12) A New Mexican Species of Croton Section Eluteria (Euphorbiaceae)(2005-12) Webster, Grady L.A new species of Croton sect. Eluteria from Estado de Veracruz, Mexico, Croton gomezii, is described and illustrated. The species appears most closely related to Croton arboreus on the basis of its indumentum, but has been generally confused with Croton reflexifolius. A key is provided to aid in distinguishing Croton gomezii from related Mexican species of section Eluteria. Item(Vol. 08, 2005-12) A Revision of the Teucrium Cubense (Lamiaceae) Complex(2005-12) Turner, Billie L.In 1946 the Teucrium cubense complex was treated as having four subspecies by McClintock and Epling. In the present account these have been treated as distinct species: Teucrium cordobense, T. cubense, T. depressum, and T. laevigatum. An additional species, T. coahuilanum, is described from north-central Mexico, this previously recognized as a North American populational element of T. laevigatum. Item(Vol. 08, 2005-12) Taxonomy and Identification of Isoetes (Isoetaceae) in Texas Based on Megaspore Features(2005-12) Holmes, Walter C.; Rushing, Ann E.; Singhurst, Jason R.Scanning electron microscopy examination of Texas specimens of Isoetes revealed differences in megaspore ornamentation patterns of the proximal and distal surfaces that support the recognition of four species of the genus in Texas. These include I. butleri and I. melanopoda, both of widespread occurrence in the central United States, I. lithophila, a central Texas endemic, and I. piedmontana, which we report as new to the state. A key to species based upon megaspore characteristics, distributions, a limited list of exsiccate, and descriptions and micrographs of megaspores are included. Item(Vol. 08, 2005-12) Taxonomy of Hymenoxys Subgenus Rydbergia (Asteraceae: Helenieae: Tetraneurinae)(2005-12) Bierner, Mark W.Hymenoxys subg. Rydbergia comprises H. brandegeei, H. grandiflora, and H. insignis. The treatment includes a discussion of the original circumscription of the taxa, the description of the genus Rydbergia to accommodate H. brandegeei and H. grandiflora, the eventual placement of Rydbergia within Hymenoxys as a subgenus, and relationships of the three taxa to one another and to other taxa of Hymenoxys. The treatment also includes synonymies, descriptions, and range maps for each of the species, and lectotypification of Actinella brandegeei. Item(Vol. 07, 2004-12) A Revision Of Capraria (Scrophulariaceae)(2004-12) Williams, Justin K.Herbarium and field studies of the chiefly neotropical genus Capraria have led to the recognition of four species. Capraria frutescens and C. mexicana are essentially endemic to Mexico. Capraria biflora is a widespread species that occurs throughout Mexico, Central and South America, the West Indies, and southern Florida. Capraria peruviana grows in northwestern South America and the Galapagos Islands. A complete account of synonymy and typification is provided, along with a key to species, scanning electron micrographs of pollen, stigmas and seeds, photographs, illustrations, and distribution maps. Item(Vol. 07, 2004-12) A Revision of Phyllanthus Section Hylaeanthus (Euphorbiaceae)(2004-12) Webster, Grady L.A revision of Phyllanthus sect. Hylaeanthus (subg. Conami) treats seven species, mostly with a primarily Amazonian distribution, as well as one species of uncertain affinity. The section is characterized within subgenus Conami by a tendency to dioecy, unramified branchlets, distinctive pollen grains with pilate exine ornamentation, and indehiscent fruits with sarcotestal seeds. Two species are described as new: Phyllanthus puntii from western Brazil (Acre) and Bolivia, and P. awaensis from northern Ecuador. Two new subspecies of Phyllanthus attenuatus are described: P. a. ssp. incarum from western Amazonia in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia; and P. a. ssp. tucuruiensis from Amazonian Brazil. Phyllanthus manausensis is reduced to a synonym of P. madeirensis. A key is provided to help distinguish specimens of taxa in sect. Hylaeanthus from superficially similar but unrelated species of other subgenera of Phyllanthus.