ItemCounterterrorism and Humanitarian Policy in al-Hol Refugee Camp in Syria(2023) Adair, Bianca; Ham, TaylorThis Policy Research Project evolved as a result of a Spring 2022 course on US Foreign Policy in the Middle East, which sought to explore national security challenges in the region, including the issue of the al-Hol Syrian refugee camp. As concerns with the al-Hol camp evolved, a group of 22 graduate students enrolled in the year-long Policy Research Project to work on solving the issue. First, through academic research that culminated in five literature reviews, students analyzed repatriation, radicalization, deradicalization, forced migration, and ISIL propaganda. By breaking down the issue into pieces that took humanitarianism and security into account, students approached the issue through multidisciplinary perspectives. ItemThe University of Texas Permian Basin: Pathways to Energizing the Basin, PRP 223(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2022) Pedigo, Steven; Anderson, Timothy; Denney, Joseph; Gray, Ashlin; Oliver, Austin; Rudolph, Mary; Shaholli, Ardian; Venn, MaddieThe University of Texas Permian Basin has initiated concrete steps to continue to grow as a hub and connector for the region's engagement, enrichment, and innovation. The recommendations in this report, formulated as the culmination of research into the Midland-Odessa region, focus on continued investment into several key areas that the university and region have already begun as UTPB steps into its role as an anchor. Scaling these burgeoning initiatives is a crucial step to enhancing the stability and equity of the region—as a University of Texas System school that can command prestige and with an array of resources unique to the Basin, UTPB is poised to lead these crucial developments. In making these specific recommendations, the proposed goals were to position UTPB as a community hub and connector, to accelerate the Permian Basin's innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystem, and to facilitate a regional "Grow Your Own" educational and training pipeline. After describing the recommended elements for accomplishing each of these goals, the report includes some key performance indicators that the university can use to assess progress. ItemStephen F. Austin University: An Anchor Institution in Deep East Texas, PRP 222(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2022) Pedigo, Steven; Calderon, Irving; Campbell, Sarah; Chung, Amanda; Cooley, Jordan; Cramer, Ryan; Fernandez, ChrisBeyond its big skies, natural beauty, and small-town feel, Deep East Texas is home to Stephen F. Austin University (SFA), a Tier 1 higher education institution. SFA is positioned as a strong talent and innovation hub for a region that is ready for an economic development plan that considers the changing regional dynamics and prioritizes regional collaboration, employment, talent retention, business attraction, industry innovation, and quality of life. The Deep East Texas (DET) region is experiencing the same challenges that many rural regions face today: a high poverty rate, low labor participation rates, lackluster job creation, insufficient industry diversification, brain drain (talent leaving the region for urban cities), and a lack of social inclusion. Deep East Texas looks to SFA, the regional public university, to be an active participant in addressing these trends and moving the economy toward resilience. In 2021, the Center for Applied Research and Rural Innovation (CARRI) was established to act as a bridge between the university and the community to address region-wide problems and further encourage collaboration. To fulfill its mission of supporting academic programs and boosting regional economic development, SFA partnered with the LBJ School of Public Affairs to build a plan that incorporates the strengths of the region and the potential of CARRI. ItemGetting What You Paid For: Extending Medicare to Eligible Beneficiaries in Mexico (U.S.-Mexican Policy Report 10)(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 1999) Warner, David C.This volume is the result of a year-long Policy Research Project at the LBJ School of Public Affairs. It is the result of an ongoing investigation of the feasibility of extending Medicare coverage in some form to beneficiaries of the program who live in Mexico. This is the fourth in a series of research projects that have touched on this topic over the last nine years. The first project surveyed retirees in San Miguel, Guadalajara-Chapala, Mexico City, and Cuernavaca and also looked at hospitals and other facilities in these communities as well as surveying the literature on cross-border utilization. Our conclusion at that time was that such coverage would be advantageous to Americans living in Mexico and possibly could save the Medicare program funds as well. Subsequent research related to this study included an examination of the ways in which the U.S. and Mexico could cooperate in providing health services in the future and a study of NAFTA and trade in medical services between the U.S. and Mexico. Although the second and third studies were somewhat tangential to the issue one might legitimately ask why we have undertaken the current study. The reason is simply that in spite of our conclusions eight years ago, there has been no appreciable movement toward examining the issue of Medicare coverage in Mexico. It has also become fairly clear that the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) would be unlikely to undertake such a significant change in coverage without a trial, such as a demonstration project. Because of the dispersed nature of the potential beneficiaries, their limited sophistication regarding reimbursement and health policy matters, and the lack of knowledge about the Mexican health system and U.S. retirees to Mexico in Washington, it has become clear that further investigation and fact-finding would be necessary to get this issue to the discussion stage. This report is the first part of that process. During 1998-1999, a second project will take place that will include a conference at which these findings and suggestions will be presented to an audience that will include retirees, health insurers, HCFA, providers, and other interested parties. Our goal with this project and the one to follow are to provide the background and to identify the relevant issues so that one or more demonstration projects can be initiated to test the impact of alternative changes in reimbursement policy. ItemIntelligence in Defense of Democracy, PRP 221(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2022) Slick, Stephen B.The threat posed to America’s democratic processes by Russia and other foreign adversaries is serious and likely to persist, if not grow, in the future. Russian operations aimed at interfering with or influencing the 2016 U.S. presidential election paired longstanding Soviet and Russian tradecraft with powerful new digital tools. Our governments, both federal and state, are better prepared to address such threats today. U.S. intelligence represents the first line of defense against foreign malign influence by focusing on early detection, appropriate sharing of information, reliable attribution of sponsorship, expert analysis, collaboration with the private sector, and timely communication with stakeholders including the voting public. This report describes the historical context and remaining challenges and recommends steps to improve the IC’s performance on this important mission. ItemDomestic Terrorism in the Digital Age, PRP 220(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2021) Pope, J. PaulThis report first summarizes the nature and scope of the domestic terrorism threat, including recent trends, the susceptibility of the United States, and the role of social media in the dramatic increase in extremism and extremist violence. In Part One, we summarize the problem: the threat of domestic terrorism is increasing in the U.S. due, in part, to the country’s unique cultural susceptibility to the drivers of increased extremism and the particular role of social media and partisan politics. Part Two of the report examines the current policy landscape, options, and debates nationally, within Texas, and within the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS). We analyze trends in domestic terrorism legislation, initiatives, and responses, and outline current policy initiatives at each level. Finally, in Part Three we recommend a comprehensive course of action specifically tailored for DPS to better tackle the increased threat of extremism and domestic terrorism. ItemEmerging Policy Practices in Latin America: Case Studies on Indigenous Social Enterprises, PRP 214(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Rodríguez, Victoria E.; Morse, Sophie M.This report focuses on six indigenous groups in countries across Latin America. The overarching interest of our research is on the ways that indigenous populations coexist harmoniously with nature, by respecting natural resources and the environment as part of their heritage of ancient cultures and lands. We selected six indigenous led social enterprises that illustrate how this respect for nature can be coupled with a different approach to development that simultaneously protects indigenous communities and their well-being. The lens through which we approach our analysis is the doctrine of Buen Vivir, which implies a holistic approach to living well—in harmony with nature, ensuring that everyone in the community is looked after and no one suffers from hardship. Each community operates their enterprise to benefit every member, including by reinvesting profits back into the communities. We find that these enterprises are very promising for protecting indigenous lands and traditions, while keeping out external enterprises keen on exploiting natural resources, while also offering alternatives to neoliberal forms of development. Our analysis reveals both the strengths and weaknesses of these social enterprises within the approach to Buen Vivir. ItemRural Revitalization in Mitarai, Osaki Shimojima Island, Japan, PRP 215(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Eaton, David J.Throughout the Japanese Edo period (1603-1868) Mitarai, a coastal town in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, flourished as a fishing and mercantile port, with a secondary economy producing mandarins. The characteristic architecture in Mitarai has been well preserved and is protected by local officials and designated as a Japanese Heritage Site. As Japan’s population urbanized rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries, settlements such as Mitarai experienced drastic population decline as working age people moved to the cities for greater opportunities unavailable in a rural port town. Tourism could improve Mitarai because it builds on the town’s assets, such as its beauty and coastal location. Tourism could provide an incentive for residents to stay and for new families and entrepreneurs to repopulate the town. Domestic and international travelers could explore the historic streets of the town, engage in local festivities and customs, or enjoy eco-friendly outdoor recreation such as fishing, cycling, and hiking. Both in Japan and in the United States, towns and settlements have experienced rural decay related to a dwindling population and a crumbling economy. Case studies such as Naoshima Island and Tokushima City highlight innovative strategies that could be employed in Mitarai to counteract these challenges by proactively promoting tourism and entrepreneurship. Naoshima managed to halt further settlement decay by utilizing private capital investment to promote art tourism through collaboration with Benesse Holdings. Mitarai could emulate many of the lessons learned at Naoshima and Tokushima about how to promote tourism within a town. This report assesses the local economy of Mitarai, Osaki Shimojima Island. The report acknowledges ongoing policies currently implemented to promote rural revitalization at the national, prefectural, and local level. It lists options that could promote tourism in Mitarai and revitalize the local economy based on Japan’s current national, prefectural, and local policies to promote rural revitalization. The report recommends measures to stimulate tourism within the local economy. ItemWelcoming Communities: Immigrant Incorporation in Dallas, TX, PRP 219(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Wasem, Ruth EllenIn 2017, Dallas became one of the two dozen US cities that established “welcoming communities” as part of immigration incorporation initiatives. Immigrants play a crucial role in the vitality of the city – 25 percent of Dallas residents are foreign born, and 32 percent of the labor force in the Dallas metro area are immigrants. The Dallas Office of Welcoming Communities and Immigrant Affairs (WCIA) developed a multi-faceted strategic plan to promote the successful inclusion of immigrants into the social and economic fabric of the Dallas community. Our research couples the aspirations of the Dallas WCIA strategic plan with the expertise of the LBJ School of Public Affairs graduate students. This Policy Research Project (PRP) centers on policy analysis and methods to measure immigrants’ attitudes about life in Dallas, to delineate immigrant and refugee residents’ access to services, to analyze how Dallas scores on indices based on measures of integration, and to offer policy tools to foster the incorporation of immigrants into Dallas. Our analyses approach immigrant incorporation from three distinct vantage points. The first is assessing how Dallas compares to other major US cities on immigrant inclusion. This tier explores methods of measuring immigrant inclusion and techniques for comparing cities on these standardized indices. The second analyzes census tract data for the City of Dallas to discern the residential patterns of immigrants and the demographic and socioeconomic features of these neighborhoods. The third queries the immigrants themselves to gather insights on the extent that they feel included within the broader Dallas community. ItemMigrant Protection Protocols: Implementation and Consequences for Asylum Seekers in Mexico, PRP 218(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Leutert, StephanieIn November 2018, the United States and Mexico negotiated the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP). Before MPP, asylum seekers were allowed to wait in the United States during their asylum cases. However, with MPP, asylum seekers are now forced to wait in Mexican border cities as their cases move through the U.S. immigration system. In January 2019, U.S. officials began to implement MPP in San Diego and then extended the program across the rest of the border. As of April 2020, more than 64,000 asylum seekers had been returned to Mexico as part of the program. The majority of the asylum seekers returned to Mexico under MPP are from the Northern Triangle of Central America, although individuals from other nationalities have also been put in the program. As of March 2020, the highest number of MPP returnees were from Honduras, accounting for 35 percent of individuals in the program. This was followed by asylum seekers from Guatemala (24 percent), Cuba (12.7 percent), and El Salvador (12.5 percent). U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers have exempted some groups from MPP, including unaccompanied minors, Mexican citizens, non-Spanish speakers (although Brazilians were eventually included), and asylum seekers in certain “special circumstances.” However, CBP officers have discretion regarding who is subject to the program, and these exemptions have not been consistently implemented. Additionally, CBP officers have also included members of “highrisk populations” in MPP, such as pregnant women, LGBTQ+ individuals, minors, and people who are disabled. Once asylum seekers are returned to Mexico, they face various challenges. Although the Mexican Migratory Law of 2011 guarantees asylum seekers the right to healthcare and education in Mexico, it can be difficult to access these services. Asylum seekers are also responsible for acquiring their own housing, even though they often have few resources. Further, they must navigate these situations while at risk of violence from criminal organizations or predatory actors. Criminal groups often target asylum seekers because they have no local ties or community and because they often have friends and family in the United States who can pay their ransom. This report recommends that MPP be immediately discontinued. However, understanding that this may be difficult in the short term, this report provides additional recommendations to address the most egregious conditions under MPP.These include improving safety for asylum seekers, excluding at-risk populations, and providing asylum seekers with greater access to due process and legal representation. ItemAndrés Manuel López Obrador’s Migratory Policy in Mexico, PRP 216(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Leutert, StephanieOn December 1, 2018, Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador assumed office and promised to change Mexico’s migratory policy. Initially, López Obrador championed a humanitarian approach to migration, placing migrant rights defenders in key policy positions and directing INM to issue an unprecedented number of humanitarian visas. However, this approach did not last. By June 2019, amid intense U.S. pressure, the López Obrador administration shifted its migratory strategy to an enforcement-based approach. As a result, Mexico has increased its number of apprehensions, detentions, and deportations. This report will detail López Obrador’s migratory policy and its consequences during his administration’s first year in office. This report’s first chapter focuses on Central Americans’ decisions to migrate to Mexico and the United States. It covers the factors that historically led people to leave their homes, including civil wars and natural disasters, which set in motion today’s migration patterns. It also looks at the current factors driving migration, such as gang and gender-based violence, political instability, and a lack of economic opportunity. The report’s second chapter outlines Mexico’s legal framework for migration, which guides the López Obrador administration’s response to Central American migration. It also provides an overview of each Mexican federal agency involved in migratory policy. This report’s third chapter covers the López Obrador administration’s migratory policies, starting with the initial push toward a more humanitarian focused policy. It also explores the López Obrador administration’s Central American development programs and the mounting challenges for Mexico’s underfunded refugee resettlement agency. Finally, the chapter also outlines the administration’s shift to an enforcement strategy and the National Guard’s deployment to the southern border. The fourth chapter chronicles these migratory policies’ effects. It covers the policies’ effects for Mexico’s foreign relations, state and local level governments, civil society organizations, Mexican citizens, and Central American migrants transiting through the country. In particular it details how these policies have shifted migrants’ transit routes, increased crimes against migrants, and ongoing xenophobic attitudes in Mexico. This report concludes with a series of recommendations for improving Mexico’s migratory policies. These include: 1) putting Mexico’s Ministry of the Interior back in control of the country’s migratory policy; 2) strengthening INM’s commitment to human rights through improved training and better infrastructure; 3); increasing the number of legal channels for Central Americans to work in Mexico; 4) expanding funding for Mexico’s refugee resettlement agency; 5) streamlining Central American development programs; and 6) reducing the National Guard’s role in migration enforcement. ItemExtending Electric Service to Rural Nepal, PRP 212(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Eaton, David; Joshi, Niraj Prakash; Gibson, DavidThis project examines the feasibility of expanding electrical service into rural villages not currently serviced by Nepal’s electrical grid. One hypothesis is that renewable energy sources can enhance each village’s economy and improve rural Nepal so as to produce local wealth and employment. The operational definition of “development” includes enhanced educational attainment, business development, and an improved quality of life and health. A key question is whether village electrification can be sustainable and cost-effective by providing electricity to light homes, schools, small businesses, health clinics, or pump water for drinking and irxviiogation. This project evaluated the technical and economic options to provide electric power based on different demand scenarios. Any effort to extend electric service to rural villages in Nepal distant from the grid would be based on a choice between grid extension (where that is feasible) versus renewable energy options such as solar, wind, micro-hydro, or biomass. Electric service is feasible only if rural residents can pay through user fees for operating costs as well as capital costs not covered by government subsidies or nongovernmental organization donations or investments. Rural electrification faces challenges beyond cost, such as Nepal’s mountainous terrain, available economic resources in each village, demographics, as well as each village’s system of local governance. A group of graduate students supported by staff and faculty from Tribhuvan University, Hiroshima University, and The University of Texas at Austin participated in a research project in 2017-2018 to evaluate prospects for electrification of two villages in rural Nepal. Project participants worked with representatives of Nepali government agencies and nonprofit organizations. Students visited two villages, Rakathum and Kothape, which have yet to be connected to Nepal’s electric grid. After evaluating the potential for grid extensions or renewable energy options for Kothape and Rakathum, students concluded that micro-hydro and wind micro-grids would not be feasible for those villages due to the absence of a sufficient hydraulic head nearby and prevailing wind speed too weak to sustain power generation, respectively. Study participants observed that the villages, although isolated, already had access to electricity via solar panels to charge cell phones and lights in homes, as well as laptops at the schools. As the villagers in Kothape and Rakathum earn their income primarily from farming, students evaluated the potential benefits from expansion of solar energy projects to supplement irrigation as well as use of biomass/biogas for household purposes. Connection to the existing grid also could be considered, given government initiatives in the area. It is beyond the scope of this project to determine how energy demands in Kothape and Rakathum could best be met, as such decisions will reflect potential subsidies or contributions from the Government of Nepal, non- profit organizations, philanthropic donors, and village residents. ItemAutonomous Rural Transportation Challenges and Opportunities in Iinan-cho, Shimane, Japan, PRP 211(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Eaton, DavidThe Japanese government views autonomous vehicle (AV) technology as an inevitable market target of opportunity for its transportation sector. Japan expects to be among the first nations to realize AV benefits and export them to the rest of the world. The Japanese government subsidizes research, testing, and development of AV technology (see Table E1). The rural town of Iinan-cho (hereafter referred to as Iinan), in the mountainous Shimane Prefecture north of Hiroshima, is involved in Japanese government-supported AV testing. Local and regional governments partnered with automobile suppliers to test AVs on Iinan’s streets. Iinan residents participated in pilots with self-driving buses and hailing apps. This report considers challenges and opportunities for Japan to implement AV technology that can serve the needs of rural and elderly residents. Fully autonomous vehicles can provide benefits to agricultural and rural communities by increasing riders’ safety, providing more transportation options, and lowering the cost of transporting goods. The large elderly population in Iinan may benefit as some elderly cease to drive. Based on surveys and interviews with stakeholders, AVs may also have adverse effects in Iinan. Residents expressed concerns about AV reliability in extreme weather conditions, job loss, and high costs. Uncertainty surrounding the cost and availability of AV technology represents a continuing challenge that complicates the design of appropriate national and regional policies. The findings and policy implications of this report could be relevant to Iinan, other rural areas in Japan, and around the world. Table E1 lists this report’s key findings regarding the potential use of AVs in Iinan. This study outlines some research methods to describe the economic and social impacts of AV technology as a potentially disruptive technology. This report describes current and potential policies for managing those impacts in a sustainable and socially responsible manner by reducing economic costs and adverse effects. ItemConservation and Community Wealth Creation in India: Challenges and Way Ahead, PRP 210(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Eaton, DavidThis report outlines challenges for resettlement and wealth creation strategies for the Van Gujjars, a nomadic tribe active across several states of northern India. This report can serve as a framework for the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and other stakeholders to determine a feasible and inclusive way ahead for the Van Gujjar tribe in the Uttarakhand State of India. There are both opportunities and barriers for tribal wealth creation in response to recent Indian federal and state conservation policies that have limited the Van Gujjars’ nomadic practices. This report’s recommendations align with the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (SDG), which includes 17 areas of sustainable human and economic development. There are immediate short-term needs for the Van Gujjar, including primary education, access to healthcare and services, clarification of their legal status, and partnerships to increase value of traditional livelihoods. There are potential long-term wealth creation opportunities for the Van Gujjar in both forest management and ecotourism. These long-term opportunities align with conservation future goals—SDGs—and integrate with the Van Gujjars’ skills, attitudes, and cultural preferences. Van Gujjar resettlement could be more successful than previous resettlement iterations in Pathri and Gaindi Khata, India. If combined with sustainable wealth generation options. Resettling Van Gujjar families around the Rajaji National Tiger Reserve (RNTR) may create a pastoral buffer to insulate protected areas from increasing urbanization and development impacts on wildlife conservation. This concept aligns with current policy efforts in India toward ecosensitive areas but also integrates principles of community-centric conservation. Van Gujjar communities possess unique skills and strong traditional knowledge of the forest that can contribute to conservation goals through proper education, vocational training, mentorship, access to capital, and institutional support. This report’s findings and policy recommendations are listed in Table 6.1 and Table 6.2. This report incorporates data collected as the result from field work in Uttarakhand in March 2019, including informal interviews with Van Gujjar families and heads of households living inside protected areas (PA) and in the settled village of Gaindi Khata. Fieldwork in India also included interviews with stakeholders regarding historical and current resettlement efforts, wildlife conservation policies, and possible sustainable wealth-creation opportunities. Two case studies on successful strategies of pastoral resettlement from India and China enhanced the fieldwork. Improvement in the lives of the Van Gujjar tribes may benefit from creative efforts with resettlement policies. Previous resettlement efforts sought with limited success to achieve both conservation and human development goals. Linking wildlife conservation and forest-dwelling community needs may be possible but is likely to require sustained political attention, institutional reforms, and adequate resource allocation, including financial and technical support. Coordinated collaboration among many public agencies and appropriate nongovernmental organizations could enable RNTR to become an example for effective community conservation in other protected areas in India and across the globe. ItemTesting Methods for Austin Workforce Program Evaluation, PRP 213(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2020) Eaton, David; Prince, HeathA set of graduate students from the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs (LBJ School) and at The University of Texas at Austin wrote this report to the City of Austin to develop and tests methods used to evaluate three local City of Austin workforce training programs: Capital IDEA, Goodwill Central Texas, and Skillpoint Alliance. This evaluation is based on interviews with employers and job-training graduates, along with an assessment of trainee wage data. This report describes background research and findings from interviews with employers and program graduates. It describes workforce training employment outcomes and programs and estimates return on investment (ROI) and social return on investment (SROI). Based on the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, the report recommends potential methods that could be utilized by the City of Austin to improve future evaluations of workforce training costs and outcomes. ItemElectric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Publicly Funded Necessity or Commercially Funded Convenience? PRP 204(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2019) Beach, Fred; Tuttle, David; Duncan, RogerThe Energy Infrastructure of the Future is an interdisciplinary initiative of the Energy Institute at the University of Texas at Austin to develop an extensive understanding of existing domestic energy infrastructure while also modeling the technical requirements and financial opportunities for a range of future infrastructures within the United States. Our goal with this study is to inform the public dialog and policy formulation about energy infrastructure with quantitative, rigorous, and dispassionate analysis that identifies and quantifies the costs, benefits, and financial opportunities of different options. The world is undergoing a variety of energy transitions as a result of demographic, economic, climatic, technological, and social forces that are shifting how we acquire and utilize energy. These transitions will result in trillions of dollars of infrastructure investment by 2050. However, it is currently unclear what infrastructure will be needed in coming years and how different transitions will impact existing public and private stakeholders. Consequently, it is possible we will make long-lasting infrastructure investments without understanding the full range of costs and impacts. This work intends to inform those investments by creating decision support tools about and providing an extensive look at how future energy services are provided and energy resources are produced, moved, and consumed throughout the United States. The study includes infrastructure associated with extracting and processing of traditional primary fuels (e.g., oil, gas, coal, uranium), primary-to-energy carrier conversions (e.g., wind turbines, power plants), transmission and distribution of energy (e.g., pipelines, electric grid), and end-use devices (e.g., electric vehicles). The first step of this study was to develop an extensive inventory and valuation of existing domestic energy infrastructure, including a description of the types of assets, including purpose, ownership, and vintage/depreciation. The second step of this study developed methods and tools to model future infrastructure requirements while incorporating the influence of different macro-trends that are driving change: decarbonization, electrification, regulated and unregulated market design, modularity of energy generation, abundance of hydrocarbon products, and information technology & automation. The methods and tools will be made available to allow stakeholders to consider the implications of different future scenarios, each of which will be characterized by assessing both the rate and magnitude of change across the life cycle from primary energy extraction to final energy service. ItemEmerging Policy Practices in Latin America, PRP 209(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2019) Rodríguez, Victoria; Morse, Sophie M. ItemMexico’s Migratory Detention System, PRP 207(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2019) Leutert, StephanieThis report examines the evolution of Mexico’s migratory detention system, particularly with respect to legislative changes in 2008 and 2011 that decriminalized migration. Until 2008, irregular migration was a criminal offense, punishable with fines and jail time. In 2008, Mexican policymakers removed the prison sentences attached to irregular migration and turned it into an administrative infraction. This change was solidified in the 2011 Migratory Act. However, despite Mexico’s decriminalization of irregular migration, migrants continue to be detained in prison-like detention centers. This report examines Mexico’s current detention system and evaluates detention conditions across the country. ItemCentral American Refugees in Mexico: Barriers to Legal Status, Rights, and Integration, PRP 206(LBJ School of Public Affairs, 2019) Leutert, StephanieMexico’s migratory laws outline a robust framework for refugee integration, but there are challenges with fulfilling the legal mandates. One primary challenge is a lack of institutional support for improving refugee integration at the federal, state, and municipal levels of government. In particular, financial resources and personnel have not kept pace with the increasing number of refugee applications, leaving COMAR without the capacity to fully address the current situation. To fill the gaps, civil society actors have stepped in, but their efforts cannot substitute for developing long-term institutional capacity. In addition to large-scale structural barriers, refugees face challenges in attempting to access employment, healthcare, and education. These challenges include but are not limited to low wages, informality, job market saturation, difficulty accessing financial institutions, burdensome bureaucracy, and a general lack of information about rights and procedures. This combination of challenges complicates refugees’ integration into Mexican society.