Impact of bromide, NOM, and prechlorination on haloamine formation, speciation, and decay during chloramination
The Chlorine-Ammonia Process was developed recently as a preoxidation process to minimize the formation of bromate during ozonation of the waters containing a significant bromide concentration. Chlorine is added first, followed by ammonia 5-10 minutes later, with the goal of sequestering bromide in monobromamine before the subsequent ozonation step. The goal of this research was to improve the Chlorine-Ammonia Process by introducing a very short prechlorination step (i.e., 30 seconds before addition of ammonia) to minimize overall disinfection by-product formation. Also, in this strategy, formation of a powerful halogenating agent, HOBr, is minimized and bromochloramine (NHBrCl) is used predominantly instead of monobromamine to sequester bromide during ozonation. To support this improved approach to bromide sequestration, this study examined the formation and decay of bromochloramine as a function of operating conditions, such as pH and Cl2/N ratio, and refined a chemical kinetic model to predict haloamine concentrations over time. Two natural organic matter (NOM) sources were used in this study (Lake Austin, Texas and Claremore Lake, Oklahoma) to study the effect of NOM on monochloramine and total chlorine decay after 30 seconds of prechlorination. The rate of the reaction between haloamines and fast and slow sites on the NOM was estimated. A kinetics model was developed to model total chlorine decay after a short prechlorination time. The model is based on the Unified Haloamine Kinetic Model developed by Pope (2006). Pope`s model failed to model the initial monochloramine concentration after 30 seconds prechlorination time as well as the monochloramine and total chlorine decay over time. The modified model shows an excellent prediction of monochloramine and total chlorine decay after 30 seconds prechlorination time at pH range of 6.5-8.0 and over a carbonate buffer concentration range of 2-10 mM. The model includes a new bromochloramine decay scheme via the reaction with monochloramine and with itself. In addition, new rate constants for the reaction of HOCl with bromide ion and reaction of HOBr with monochloramine were added. The hypobromous acid formation rate was found to be an acid-catalyzed reaction, which confirms the finding of Kumar et al. (1987). A new value of the acid catalysis effect of hydrogen ion was estimated. New terms were introduced to the hyprobromous acid formation rate including the acid catalysis effect of bicarbonate, carbonic acid, and ammonium ion. In addition, the reaction of HOBr with monochloramine to form bromochloramine was found to be an acid-catalyzed reaction, and a new value of the rate constant was estimated.