A Proposed Navigation Message Authentication Implementation for Civil GPS Anti-Spoofing
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A specific implementation of navigation message authentication (NMA) for civil GPS anti-spoofing is proposed. The notion of GNSS signal authentication is defined in probabilistic terms. This work proposes a practical, backwardcompatible NMA strategy for the civil L2/L5 civil navigation (CNAV) message. The proposal is sufficiently detailed to facilitate near-term implementation of securityhardened civil GPS.