Fertility policy in post-Soviet Russia : policy analysis and prescriptions
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Russia has over the past century experienced a phenomenal drop in fertility. In the post-Soviet period, the birth rate per woman has dropped to one of the lowest in the world, and the population continues to age. While aware of the coming demographic crisis since the 1980s, the state has in the last decade publicly acknowledged the problem and begun drafting policy reforms aimed at increasing fertility. These reforms have included: limitations on abortions, parental leave policies, public competitions and campaigns, and direct transfer payments to parents. These generally unsuccessful programs, however, have suffered from a lack of long-term foresight, steady funding, and an acknowledgement of slowing of and recent reversal of population growth. In order to increase fertility and the health of the Russian population, future reforms will need to address the instability of tax inflows in to the federal budget, acknowledge broader infrastructure issues in the Russian economy, and decrease issues of sexual discrimination, misogyny, and abuse.