Bipolar electrodes for the screening of electrocatalyst candidates
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Advances in the application of bipolar electrodes (BPEs) for screening of electrocatalysts, localized activation of a single conductive electrode, the optical tracking of single particles interacting with an active electrode, and the introduction of microwires in paper-based analytical devices are described. In an original proof of concept study arrays of BPEs were used to determine the relative activity of model nanoparticle systems for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by a simple optical readout: the electrodissolution of Ag microbands. The number of bands that dissolved during the screening procedure determined the relative activity of the materials. These screening results for model nanoparticle systems were related to traditional electrochemical experiments and showed a strong correlation. Building on that initial study, the BPE platform for screening ORR electrocatalyst candidates was improved so that more materials could be evaluated simultaneously by increasing the density of electrodes in the array, controlled compositional variations were prepared with the implementation of piezodispensing, and a different reporter, Cr, replaced Ag at the BPE anodes which reduced the risk of contamination and improved reliability of screening experiments. Further studies into the versatility of the screening platform have been carried out using non-noble metal systems for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which has a long history of interest for electrochemists. A single conductive electrode material can be made to act as an array of electrodes by confining it at the intersection of two orthogonal microfluidic channels. By manipulating the direction and magnitude of the electric field in the device, faradaic reactions can be selectively localized on the BPE. An approach for optically tracking individual, insulating microparticles interacting with an active UME has been achieved. This approach brings new insight and understanding of single particle electrochemical studies. Finally, a method for incorporating microwires and mesh electrodes into paper-based electroanalytical devices is reported. This has many advantages over traditional screen-printed carbon electrodes that are traditionally used in paper-based devices.