Shale characterization using TGA, Py-GC-MS, and NMR
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Many of the current analytical techniques originally developed to characterize conventional reservoir rocks and fluid cannot adequately measure shale and source rocks. An example of this is Retort, where it is not feasible to get sufficient fluid from source rock to make useful measurements. The primary interest of this thesis is the exploration of other analytical techniques, two of which are previously unused in the oil and gas industry. These are Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The techniques proposed offer valuable insight into the properties of the rock. TGA gives accurate weight of a sample as temperature is increased, Py-GC-MS is useful for identifying exact molecules in vaporized fluid, and NMR can be used to characterize viscosity and hydrocarbon chain length. The methods using these techniques can be utilized to further confirm mineralogy of a sample, identify the fluid constituents and quantify their weight, analyze changes in a sample between two different states, and calculate the free fluid saturations of oil and gas in shales. Procedures and results for each of these are presented in this thesis to show methodology and give the reader an idea of its useful applications.