The construction and use of physics-based plasticity models and forming-limit diagrams to predict elevated temperature forming of three magnesium alloy sheet materials
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Magnesium (Mg) alloy sheets possess several key properties that make them attractive as lightweight replacements for heavier ferrous and non-ferrous alloy sheets. However, Mg alloys need to be formed at elevated temperatures to overcome their limited room-temperature formabilities. For example, commercial forming is presently conducted at 450°C. Deformation behavior of the most commonly used wrought Mg alloy, AZ31B-H24, and two potentially competitive materials, AZ31B-HR and ZEK100 alloy sheets, with weaker crystallographic textures, are studied in uniaxial tension at 450°C and lower temperatures. The underlying physics of deformation including the operating deformation mechanisms, grain growth, normal and planar anisotropy, and strain hardening are used to construct material constitutive models capable of predicting forming for all three Mg alloy sheets at 450°C and 350°C. The material models constructed are implemented in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations and validated using biaxial bulge forming, an independent testing method. Forming limit diagrams are presented for the AZ31B-H24 and ZEK100 alloy sheets at temperatures from 450°C down to 250°C. The results suggest that forming processes at temperatures lower than 450°C are potentially viable for manufacturing complex Mg components.