FFT and multigrid accelerated integral equation solvers for multi-scale electromagnetic analysis in complex backgrounds
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Novel integral-equation methods for efficiently solving electromagnetic problems that involve more than a single length scale of interest in complex backgrounds are presented. Such multi-scale electromagnetic problems arise because of the interplay of two distinct factors: the structure under study and the background medium. Both can contain material properties (wavelengths/skin depths) and geometrical features at different length scales, which gives rise to four types of multi-scale problems: (1) twoscale, (2) multi-scale structure, (3) multi-scale background, and (4) multi-scale-squared problems, where a single-scale structure resides in a different single-scale background, a multi-scale structure resides in a single-scale background, a single-scale structure resides in a multi-scale background, and a multi-scale structure resides in a multi-scale background, respectively. Electromagnetic problems can be further categorized in terms of the relative values of the length scales that characterize the structure and the background medium as (a) high-frequency, (b) low-frequency, and (c) mixed-frequency problems, where the wavelengths/skin depths in the background medium, the structure’s geometrical features or internal wavelengths/skin depths, and a combination of these three factors dictate the field variations on/in the structure, respectively. This dissertation presents several problems arising from geophysical exploration and microwave chemistry that demonstrate the different types of multi-scale problems encountered in electromagnetic analysis and the computational challenges they pose. It also presents novel frequency-domain integral-equation methods with proper Green function kernels for solving these multi-scale problems. These methods avoid meshing the background medium and finding fields in an extended computational domain outside the structure, thereby resolving important complications encountered in type 3 and 4 multi-scale problems that limit alternative methods. Nevertheless, they have been of limited practical use because of their high computational costs and because most of the existing ‘fast integral-equation algorithms’ are not applicable to complex Green function kernels. This dissertation introduces novel FFT, multigrid, and FFT-truncated multigrid algorithms that reduce the computational costs of frequency-domain integral-equation methods for complex backgrounds and enable the solution of unprecedented type 3 and 4 multi-scale problems. The proposed algorithms are formulated in detail, their computational costs are analyzed theoretically, and their features are demonstrated by solving benchmark and challenging multi-scale problems.