The Jumano in the first century of colonial contact : ethnohistoric and archaeological perspectives
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The Jumano Indians of Texas have long been an enigma in Texas history and archeology. Many researchers from both disciplines have sought to connect the historic accounts with those of archeological assemblages, but have largely been unsuccessful. Part of the problem has been that the records tend to present problematic issues and very little information in the way of material culture. Another problem has been the tendency among archaeologists in the state to continue to lump site assemblages into larger analytical units, which in effect acts to homogenize any variability that would lend a better understanding of behavioral aspects. Recent efforts in the area of identity and social fields have opened new possibilities. Along these lines this report uses the ethnohistoric data on the Jumano to construct a frame of reference to define the Jumano identity and social field. Using the variability embedded in the Cielo Complex as a model, several sites within the Jumano range were identified for further investigation.