The regulation of chromosome segregation by Aurora kinase, protein phosphatase 1 and nucleolar protein UTp7
The Sli15-Ipl1-Bir1 chromosomal passenger complex is essential for proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment and spindle stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subcellular localization of this complex during anaphase is regulated by the Cdc14 protein phosphatase, which is kept inactive in the nucleolus until anaphase onset. I show here that the predominantly nucleolar ribosome biogenesis protein Utp7 is also present at kinetochores and is required for normal organization of kinetochore proteins and proper chromosome segregation. Utp7 associates with and regulates the localization of Sli15 and Cdc14. It prevents the abnormal localization of Sli15 on cytoplasmic microtubules, the premature concentration of Sli15 on the pre-anaphase spindle, and the premature nucleolar release of Cdc14 before anaphase onset. Utp7 regulates Sli15 localization not entirely through its effect on Cdc14. Furthermore, the mitotic exit block caused by Cdc14 inactivation is relieved partially by the simultaneous inactivation of Utp7. Thus, Utp7 is a multifunctional protein that plays essential roles in the vital cellular processes of ribosome biogenesis, chromosome segregation and cell cycle control. Protein phosphatase 1, Glc7 opposes in vivo functions of the Ipl1-Sli15-Bir1 kinase complex in budding yeast. I show here Scd5- a targeting subunit of Glc7 that regulates endocytosis/cortical actin organization and undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling- is present at kinetochores. Ipl1 associates with both Glc7 and Scd5. The scd5-PP1[Delta]2 mutation, which disrupts the association between Glc7 and Scd5, also disrupts the association between Ipl1 and Scd5-Glc7 without affecting the kinetochore localization of these proteins. Genetic studies suggest that Scd5 may positively regulate both Glc7 phosphatase and the Ipl1 kinase complex. In accordance, Scd5 stimulates in vitro kinase activity of Ipl1. scd5-PP1[Delta]2 cells missegregate chromosomes severely due to several defects: i) at least one of sister kinetochores appears not attached to microtubule. ii) sister chromatids are persistently cohesed through anaphase. iii) Sli15 is hyperphosphorylated and less abundant on the anaphase spindle resulting in unstable mitotic spindle. These results together suggest that Scd5 functions in diverse processes that are essential for faithful chromosome segregation. How Scd5 coordinately regulates two apparently antagonistic enzymatic activities of Ipl1 and Glc7 remains to be determined.