The preconstitutional regime of Venustiano Carranza, 1913-1917



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The purpose of this thesis is to trace the political career of Venustiano Carranza as First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army from the time he first denounced Victoriano Huerta on February 18, 1913, to the eve of his election as constitutional president in 1917. This paper will show the economic and social policies followed by Carranza as aids to his political career. The first chapter deals with Carranza's early denunciation of Huerta and his struggle against Huerta and his successor Carbajal. The second traces the steps in Carranza's break with Villa and Zapata and his rejection of the work of the Convention of Aguascalientes. This is followed by a discussion of Carranza's handling of the question of the American occupation of Vera Cruz and his recognition as head of the de facto government of Mexico by the foreign countries. The fourth chapter discusses the border troubles and the American Punitive Expedition, while the last chapter shows how Carranza adopted economic and social reforms to aid him in his effort to secure and to maintain his control as First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army and how these reforms created the necessity of calling a constitutional convention in order to insure their becoming laws. This paper does not attempt to relate the history of the careers of Zapata or Villa, the other two leaders in Mexico's civil troubles during this period, except as their careers affected the career of Carranza. Neither does it attempt to relate the history of the constitutional convention of 1916 and 1917, nor Carranza's election as constitutional president. It limits itself entirely to Carranza's acts during the period in which he called himself First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army