Effects of supplementary cementing materials on the setting time and early strength of concrete
The substitution of a portion of cement in concrete with supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) frequently results in delayed setting and low early strength. When SCM containing concrete is placed during cold weather and/or contains certain chemical admixtures, these problems can intensify and can seriously impact the performance of a pavement. This project investigated the setting time, early strength gain, maturity, bleeding, and plastic shrinkage cracking of several concrete pavement mixtures containing SCMs under different temperature conditions (mimicking summer, spring, and winter weather). The data were used to develop guidelines for identifying slow setting mixtures and preventing their use in pavements. In addition, a model to predict setting times was developed based on degree of hydration.