The impacts of New Town development : considering the case Jinju Innovation City, South Korea
The New Town concept originated with the British “new community,” which was an attempt to solve the urban problems arising from the Industrial Revolution. New-town development was carried out globally as part of recovery projects in the aftermath of World War II. The developmental process of South Korea and the development of New Towns are closely related. The development of land devastated by the Korean War into large-scale New Town complexes and high-density apartment-oriented housing was chosen by the Korean government as the best developmental strategy considering the lack of flat land, increasing population and rapid urbanization. Under the goal of efficiency and productivity, the Korean government adopted Western development models and has been implementing centralized and top-down regional development. However, the government and other project implementers have not paid much attention to the relationships with old towns around the New Town. The large-scale development of New Towns has had a profound impact on the adjacent cities, and the discrepancy and inequality between the old town and the New Town could cause social problems and regional conflicts. In this report, I discuss ‘Innovation City’, the most recently developed New Town in Korea, and the impact of the creation of New Towns on adjacent cities. In my case study of Jinju Innovation City, I found that the development of the Innovation City contributed to the local economy by increasing tax revenue and job creation but also led to significant changes in production by industry. I also found that residents of Jinju preferred the Innovation City over the old town. Because of the population outflow from the adjacent old towns to the Innovation City and the weakening of the industrial structure of the old towns in the education industry and other areas essential to life, it is necessary to consider the impacts of Innovation City development on underprivileged members of society.