Physics-based material constitutive models for the simulation of high-temperature forming of magnesium alloy AZ31
Magnesium sheet alloys, such as wrought AZ31, have material properties that make them an attractive option for use in automotive and aircraft components. However, the low ductility of magnesium alloys at room temperature necessitates the use of high-temperature forming to manufacture complex components. Finite-element-method (FEM) simulations can assist in determining the optimum processing parameters for high-temperature forming, but only if an accurate material constitutive model is used. New material constitutive models describing the deformation behavior of AZ31 sheet at 450°C are proposed. These models account for both active deformation mechanisms at this temperature: grain-boundary-sliding creep and five-power dislocation-climb creep. Phenomena affecting these deformation mechanisms, such as material anisotropy and grain growth, are also investigated. This physics-based approach represents an improvement over previous material models, which require nonphysical parameters and can only predict forming for a limited range of conditions. Tensile tests are conducted to obtain data used in fitting constitutive models. New models are used in FEM simulations of both tensile tests and biaxial gas-pressure bulge tests. Simulation results are compared to experimental data for validation and determination of model accuracy.