Neurobiological Signatures of Alcohol Dependence Revealed by Protein Profiling

Date

2013-12-16

Authors

Gorini, Giorgio
Roberts, Amanda J.
Mayfield, Dayne R.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

PLOS One

Abstract

Alcohol abuse causes dramatic neuroadaptations in the brain, which contribute to tolerance, dependence, and behavioral modifications. Previous proteomic studies in human alcoholics and animal models have identified candidate alcoholism-related proteins. However, recent evidences suggest that alcohol dependence is caused by changes in co-regulation that are invisible to single protein-based analysis. Here, we analyze global proteomics data to integrate differential expression, co-expression networks, and gene annotations to unveil key neurobiological rearrangements associated with the transition to alcohol dependence modeled by a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol (CIE), two-bottle choice (2BC) paradigm. We analyzed cerebral cortices (CTX) and midbrains (MB) from male C57BL/6J mice subjected to a CIE, 2BC paradigm, which induces heavy drinking and represents one of the best available animal models for alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. CIE induced significant changes in protein levels in dependent mice compared with their non-dependent controls. Multiple protein isoforms showed region-specific differential regulation as a result of post-translational modifications. Our integrative analysis identified modules of co-expressed proteins that were highly correlated with CIE treatment. We found that modules most related to the effects of CIE treatment coordinate molecular imbalances in endocytic- and energy-related pathways, with specific proteins involved, such as dynamin-1. The qRT-PCR experiments validated both differential and co-expression analyses, and the correspondence among our data and previous genomic and proteomic studies in humans and rodents substantiates our findings. The changes identified above may play a key role in the escalation of ethanol consumption associated with dependence. Our approach to alcohol addiction will advance knowledge of brain remodeling mechanisms and adaptive changes in response to drug abuse, contribute to understanding of organizational principles of CTX and MB proteomes, and define potential new molecular targets for treating alcohol addiction. The integrative analysis employed here highlight the advantages of systems approaches in studying the neurobiology of alcohol addiction.

Description

Giorgio Gorini, R. Dayne Mayfield, Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America
Amanda J. Roberts, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

LCSH Subject Headings

Citation

Gorini G, Roberts AJ, Mayfield RD (2013) Neurobiological Signatures of Alcohol Dependence Revealed by Protein Profiling. PLoS ONE 8(12): e82656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082656