Monolithic integration of functional perovskite structures on Si
Functional crystalline oxides with perovskite structure have a wide range of electrical properties such as ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and superconductive, as well as unique properties that make them suited for a wide variety of applications including electro-optics, high-k dielectrics, and catalysis. Therefore, in order to realize the potential of perovskite oxides it is desirable to integrate them with semiconductors. Due to the high surface energy of oxides compared to that of semiconductors and the low number of oxides that are thermodynamically stable against SiO₂ formation, it has been extremely difficult to integrate epitaxial oxides with Si directly. However, in 1998, McKee and co-workers finally succeeded in depositing SrTiO₃ on Si directly using a Sr template via molecular beam epitaxy. This breakthrough opened the possibility of integrating the perovskite oxides with Si to realize potential device applications. In this dissertation, alkaline earth metal (Sr and Ba) templates on semiconductors, which enable epitaxial growth of complex oxides on semiconductors, are investigated using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for growth and in-situ X-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) for the electronic structure analysis. An epitaxial layer of SrTiO₃ on Si using such alkaline earth templates is used as a pseudo-substrate for the integration of perovskite oxides on Si. Through the use of post-deposition annealing as a function of oxygen pressure and annealing time, the strain relaxation behavior of epitaxial SrTiO₃ films grown on Si is also investigated to determine how the SiO₂ interlayer thickness affects the SrTiO₃ lattice constant. This ability to control strain relaxation can be used as a way to manipulate the properties of other perovskite oxides grown on SrTiO₃/Si. Additionally, SrTiO₃ can be made conductive by doping with La. Conductive SrTiO₃ can be used as a thermoelectric, a transparent conductive layer, and a quantum metal layer in a quantum metal field-effect transistor (QMFET). The structural, electrical, and optical properties of strained conductive La-doped SrTiO₃ are studied in order to understand the relation between elastic strain and electrical properties for electronic device applications. Oxide quantum well systems based on LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ are also investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry to understand how the quantum well layer structure affects the electronic structure. Such quantum well systems are good candidates for the monolithic integration of functional perovskites on semiconductors. Oxides quantum wells can be used in various device applications such as in quantum well cascade lasers, laser diodes and high performance transistors. As part of the growth optimization for high quality complex oxide heterostructures, the surface preparation of SrTiO₃ substrates using several different methods was also extensively studied using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We found that acid-free water-based surface preparation is actually more effective at removing SrOx̳ crystallites and leaving the surface TiO₂-terminated compared to the more commonly used acid-based methods.