Evaluating the energy consumed for water use in the United States




Sanders, Kelly T.
Webber, Michael E.

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IOP Publishing


This letter consists of a first-order analysis of the primary energy embedded in water in the United States. Using a combination of top-down sectoral assessments of energy use together with a bottom-up allocation of energy-for-water on a component-wise and service-specific level, our analysis concludes that energy use in the residential, commercial, industrial and power sectors for direct water and steam services was approximately 12:3 0:3 quadrillion BTUs or 12.6% of the 2010 annual primary energy consumption in the United States. Additional energy was used to generate steam for indirect process heating, space heating and electricity generation.


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K.T. Sanders and M.E. Webber, "Evaluating the energy consumed for water use in the United States," Environmental Research Letters 7 034034 (11pp) (2012)