Resummation of the Holstein-Primakoff expansion and differential equation approach to operator square roots

Date

2020-11-17

Authors

Vogl, Michael
Laurell, Pontus
Zhang, Hao
Okamoto, Satoshi
Fiete, Gregory A.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

American Physical Society

Abstract

Operator square roots are ubiquitous in theoretical physics. They appear, for example, in the Holstein- Primakoff representation of spin operators and in the Klein-Gordon equation. Often the use of a perturbative expansion is the only recourse when dealing with them. In this paper, we show that under certain conditions, differential equations can be derived which can be used to find perturbatively inaccessible approximations to operator square roots. Specifically, for the number operator nˆ = a

†a we show that the square root

√nˆ near nˆ = 0 can be approximated by a polynomial in nˆ. This result is unexpected because a Taylor expansion fails. A polynomial expression in nˆ is possible because nˆ is an operator, and its constituents a and a

† have a non trivial

commutator [a, a

†] = 1 and do not behave as scalars. We apply our approach to the zero-mass Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian in a constant magnetic field and, as a main application, the Holstein-Primakoff representation of spin operators, where we are able to find new expressions that are polynomial in bosonic operators. We prove that these new expressions exactly reproduce spin operators. Our expressions are manifestly Hermitian, which offers an advantage over other methods, such as the Dyson-Maleev representation.

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Citation

Vogl, M; Laurell, P; Zhang, H; Okamoto, S; Fiete, GA. Resummation of the Holstein-Primakoff expansion and differential equation approach to operator square roots. Phys. Rev. Res. 2020, 2(4), 43243-. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.043243.