Molecular beam epitaxy of highly crystalline GeSnC using CBr4 at low temperatures

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Dey, Tuhin
Reza, Md. Shamim
Arbogast, Augustus
Holtz, Mark W.
Droopad, Ravi
Bank, Seth R.
Wistey, Mark A.

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AIP Publishing


Tensile-strained pseudomorphic Ge1–x–ySnxCy was grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) at low temperatures (171–258 °C). High resolution x-ray diffraction reveals good crystallinity in all samples. Atomic force microscopy showed atomically smooth surfaces with a maximum roughness of 1.9 nm. The presence of the 530.5 cm−1 local vibrational mode of carbon in the Raman spectrum verifies substitutional C incorporation in Ge1–x–ySnxCy samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms carbon bonding with Sn and Ge without evidence of sp2 or sp3 carbon formation. The commonly observed Raman features corresponding to alternative carbon phases were not detected. Furthermore, no Sn droplets were visible in scanning electron microscopy, illustrating the synergy in C and Sn incorporation and the potential of Ge1–x–ySnxCy active regions for silicon-based lasers.


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Dey, T; Reza, MS; Arbogast, A; Holtz, MW; Droopad, R; Bank, SR; Wistey, MA. Molecular beam epitaxy of highly crystalline GeSnC using CBr4 at low temperatures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2022, 121(12), 122104-. DOI: 10.1063/5.0102093