A Study of Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities and Dispersivities Under Carbon Dioxide Flooding Conditions in a Heterogeneous Carbonate Core




Dria, Dennis Edward

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In a carbon dioxide reservoir flood, a knowledge of the recovery mechanism and the ability to accurately predict the constitutive properties governing the process are necessary for the proper design and implementation of the project. The relative permeability relationships which control multiphase fluid flow and the mixing phenomena which occur during multiphase miscible displacement are among the many factors to be considered in such an operation. Presented here are the results of a study of the relative permeabilities and mixing phenomena which were measured in steady-state, high-temperature, high-pressure, gas-oil-brine three-phase flow experiments conducted in a carbonate core under carbon dioxide flooding conditions. The laboratory measurements of three-phase C02-gas-oil-brine relative permeabilities were made at 160° F and pressures from 1300 to 1500 psia in a Guelph dolomite core. The experiments were conducted under steady-state flow conditions so that instability phenomena were eliminated. Consistent, monotonically changing saturation trajectories were followed to minimize hysteresis effects. Results indicate that, under these flow conditions, the relative permeability of each phase depends only upon that phase saturation, rather than upon two saturations as previous studies have concluded. During each steady-state flow experiment, nonreactive tracers were injected into each flowing phase. Moment analysis of the tracer response data was used to directly calculate the saturation of each phase. A finite-difference simulator was used to estimate the mixing parameters of a convection-dispersion-capacitance flow model.


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