Bubble pulsation and translation near a soft tissue interface
A Lagrangian formalism presented by Hay, Ilinskii, Zabolotskaya, and Hamilton [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 124--137 (2012)] to calculate the pulsation of a spherical bubble, immersed in liquid and near one or two viscoelastic layers, is extended here to include bubble translation. The method presented here is simplified from that given by Hay et al. in that only a single interface between a liquid and a viscoelastic half-space is considered. In the present approach the force on the bubble due to the presence of the liquid-solid interface is calculated using a Green's function that takes into account elastic waves and viscosity in the layer, and the viscous boundary layer within the liquid near the interface. Previous models and experiments have shown that the direction of bubble translation near a viscoelastic layer is correlated with the direction of a liquid jet often produced by the bubble during collapse. In this dissertation an attempt is made to model the pulsation and translation of a spherical bubble near a liquid-solid interface to infer the direction of bubble translation in reference to material parameters of the liquid and viscoelastic medium, and the standoff distance of the bubble from the interface. The analysis is simplified by demonstrating that the direction of bubble translation can be inferred from the phase of the component of the Green's function associated with the reverberant pressure gradient. For linear bubble pulsation it is shown that the domain of material properties of the viscoelastic medium which generally corresponds to bubble translation away from the interface occurs when the effective stiffness of the viscoelastic medium is greater than the effective damping for both itself and the liquid. The analysis is performed assuming the viscoelastic medium is similar to soft tissue, and its dynamics are described by a Voigt, Kelvin, or Maxwell model. The simulations are compared with existing experimental data. Effects of high-amplitude bubble pulsation are explored in terms of how the simulations differ as the pulsation amplitude increases. At higher pulsation amplitudes, it is shown that bubble translation is still described qualitatively by analyzing the phase of the reverberant pressure gradient.