Time-dependent properties of solids : non-perturbative Floquet Hamiltonians and beyond
In the different chapters of this dissertation we investigate multiple non-perturbative approaches that allow the study of solids subjected to time dependent fields.
In the second chapter, we develop a very general non-perturbative and flexible approach that allows to study periodically driven quantum systems via an effective time-independent theory. It makes use of renormalization-group-like flow equations to find highly accurate effective Hamiltonians[Phys. Rev. X 9, 021037 (2019)]. The range of validity of the approach is checked numerically for various 1D spin systems and confirmed to be beyond the reaches of ordinary perturbative methods. It also compares favourably to another non-perturbative approach.
In the third chapter we examine the wealth of different approximations to the time evolution operator that are known from the literature. Inspired by Hamilton-Jacobi theory we find a useful reformulation of the equation for the time evolution operator [Phys. Rev. A 100, 012132 (2019)]. This allows us to find the various known approximations of the time evolution operator in a unified fashion and new ones. Interestingly the RG-like flow equations from the second chapter are found to be one specific limit of the more general approach developed here. A periodically driven Ising model is used to verify the range of validity of the different approximations. This allows us to put them into a hierarchy.
Up until here the methods that were explored are most valid in the high to mid frequency regime. In the fourth chapter we show how for the case of a weakly driven system a simple approach can be used to treat the low frequency regime [Phys. Rev. B 101, 024303 (2020)]. To achieve this we derive a quasi-energy dependent Hamiltonians and very crucially require self-consistency for the quasi-energies. For the simple two band example of single layer graphene it is found to be highly accurate approach that also allows for accurate descriptions of even sensitive quantities like Chern numbers
For the last fifth chapter of the thesis we switch gears and consider a specific system of much recent interest - twisted bilayer graphene. We investigate how light that is altered by the boundary conditions of a metallic waveguide can change the strength of interlayer couplings [arXiv:2001.04416 (2020)]. We investigate how this change affects the twist angles at which flat bands appear and find very simple analytic results that are in good agreement with a numerical treatment.
In the sixth chapter of the thesis, we investigate the effects circularly polarized light has on twisted bilayer graphene[ arXiv:2002.05124 (2020)]. We derive two effective Hamiltonians valid in different driving regimes. One is valid for weak drives but low frequencies and the other for relatively strong drives. The Hamiltonian for the strongly driven regime is compared to exact numeric results and found to perform better than other common methods. We analyse the newly generated terms in both Hamiltonians for their symmetry.