RpoS Controls the Vibrio cholerae Mucosal Escape Response

dc.creatorNielsen, Alex Toftgaarden
dc.creatorDolganov, Nadia Aen
dc.creatorOtto, Glenen
dc.creatorMiller, Michael Cen
dc.creatorWu, Cheng Yenen
dc.creatorSchoolnik, Gary Ken
dc.descriptionAlex Toftgaard Nielsen is with Stanford University School of Medicine, Nadia A Dolganov is with Stanford University School of Medicine, Glen Otto is with UT Austin and Stanford University, Michael C Miller is with Stanford University School of Medicine, Cheng Yen Wu is with Stanford University School of Medicine, Gary K Schoolnik is with Stanford University School of Medicine.en
dc.description.abstractVibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the “mucosal escape response,” this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis project has been supported by a grant from the Danish Technical Scientific Research Council to ATN and by grants to GKS from the Ellison Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (AI053706).en
dc.identifier.citationNielsen AT, Dolganov NA, Otto G, Miller MC, Wu CY, et al. (2006) RpoS Controls the Vibrio cholerae Mucosal Escape Response. PLoS Pathog 2(10): e109. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020109en
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 United Statesen
dc.subjectBacterial pathogensen
dc.subjectFlagellar motilityen
dc.subjectGene expressionen
dc.subjectPathogen motilityen
dc.subjectVibrio choleraeen
dc.titleRpoS Controls the Vibrio cholerae Mucosal Escape Responseen

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