Design and hybrid additive manufacturing for electronic components that can withstand shock loading
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A hybrid additive manufacturing approach is studied to demonstrate the feasibility of using a combination of negative stiffness elements (NSEs) and micro-cold spray (MCS) to produce electronic devices that can survive shock loading such as that experienced in an artillery launch. This work, supported by the Army Research Laboratory, explores how the design of NSEs can be tuned to dissipate as much energy as possible and how a primary building block of an electrical circuit—a resistive film—can be deposited onto a substrate with the MCS process. The NSE is designed to maximize amount of energy dissipated during the snap-through event using analytical equations built into a Microsoft Excel® tool, and the effectiveness of the optimized design is simulated in Abaqus® finite element software. The final design is predicted to mitigate impulses of up to 60,000 Gs by up to 80%. Tin oxide (SnO₂), commonly used in resistor components, is chosen for the resistive film. Suitable MCS processing parameters for SnO₂ are determined, and powder characterization is carried out to validate that the powder diameter is in a range that can deposit films and that the mixer is effective at breaking up agglomerates. Resistive elements consisting of SnO₂ films produced with the MCS process and silver pads for contact measurements are written on alumina substrates.