Review of the State of Art: Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water Programs

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The objective of this study was to:

  1. Evaluate the state of the art for groundwater under the direct influence (GWUDI) of surface water programs in the US and other countries.
  2. Evaluate the existing groundwater under the influence (GUI) program in Texas with respect to hydrogeologic parameters and microbial indicators, including total and fecal coliform and microscopic particulate analyses (MPA).
  3. Make recommendations to the Texas program based on a synthesis of best practices and elements from all reviewed programs.

The driving force behind these evaluations is the fact that particles entrained in water can make the disinfection process ineffective because pathogens can be shielded within microscopic debris (LeChevallier et al., 1981). Further, some particles themselves, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts, can be pathogenic even if not encased in debris. Hence, groundwater sources that contain surface water-linked debris (algae, nematodes, etc.) that receive only disinfection have been implicated in many waterborne diseases.


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