Cumulative extraction as a means of segregation of kero bases obtained from petroleum : isolation and identification of 2, 4, 8- and 2, 4, 5- trimethylquinoline



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An early investigation of the crude petroleum from various states has shown a wide difference in their nitrogen content according to the appended table. [...] Since the above results revealed the unusually high nitrogen content of Pacific Coast crudes, a California refinery was chosen to supply the necessary material for the investigation endowed by the American Petroleum Institute; and because of its use of the Edeleanu process of refining kerosene, rather than the sulfuric acid process, the Union Oil Company of California was finally chosen. Sulfuric acid refining withdraws the nitrogen compounds in the acid layer, thus causing them to be sulfonated or destroyed. Furthermore, in this case, the cost of recovery would be prohibitive because it would involve the neutralization and loss of large quantities of sulfuric acid. In the Edeleanu process, the bases and about one-third of the hydrocarbon oil treated pass into the so called extract and upon the removal of the sulfur dioxide, remain unchanged and can be recovered by dilute acid extraction. The California crudes, although uniformly of a high nitrogen content yield practically no bases on acid extraction, while the crude distillates contain bases readily extracted with mineral acids. In view of the small amount of nitrogen in petroleum and the fact that it is not present entirely in basic form, a great deal of work and expense is envolved in obtaining even small quantities of bases. The Union Oil Company originally furnished the Texas laboratory with fifty liters of kero bases, but this supply proved inadequate for a thorough investigation, and this company furnished three more barrels of bases, assembled at a time when the refinery was operating largely on McKittrick crude, from the San Joaquin valley field and having a nitrogen content of 0.64 percent. This material was obtained from sulfuric acid extraction of 3000 barrels of Edeleanu kerosene extract, which in turn represented 25 percent of the kerosene fraction, and the latter 5 percent of the crude oil refined; so it is evident, 80,000 barrels of California petroleum yield approximately one barrel of kero bases. However, all of the crude distillates contain bases; so their aggregate amount would be considerably larger, were the gasoline, gas oil, and lubricating fractions included