The impact of different descriptions on governor response in the co-optimization model to provide primary frequency reserve in day-ahead market




Xing, Qinhao

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With rapid expansion in renewable generation resources (RGS), maintaining system frequency is becoming more significant since conventional generation units have been being substituted by RGS. Therefore, the available primary frequency reserve (PFR) from thermal generators has been reducing, which may even be inadequate under low system inertia conditions. Battery storage and load resources (LR) equipped with under frequency relays can participate in frequency response as fast frequency reserve (FFR). In this report, a co-optimization model in the literature, considering the coordination of PFR and FFR as reserve providers to meet the requirement on frequency response, is introduced, which optimizes the dispatch of generation and reserve simultaneously and reaches maximum social welfare. Moreover, the formulation is modified to represent PFR in terms of system inertia level and headroom (HR) of generation units. Then, four different formulations are proposed and tested with the same case study. Comparisons are made of the dispatch results of PFR and FFR, as well as the cleared prices of PFR and FFR. Finally, further discussions are presented considering the contribution of different types of frequency response, as well as suggestions for future market policies.


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