Integrated magnetic localization sensing and actuation of steerable robotic catheter for Peripheral Arterial Disease treatment



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Magnetically Steerable Robotic Catheters (MSRC) exhibit potential in treating Peripheral Arterial Diseases (PAD) through the precise steering of a catheter tip via magnetic actuation. PAD, characterized by the narrowing of blood vessels, affects approximately 6.5 million people age 40 and older in the US, necessitating effective treatment options. Percutaneous Endovascular Intervention (PEI) is the conventional approach but often lacks efficient navigation through intricate vasculatures. Existing MSRC systems rely on continuous fluoroscopic imaging for real-time location sensing, posing radiation risks to patients and medical staff. To reduce x-ray radiation exposure, this study presents an innovative MSRC system that integrates magnetic location sensing and actuation. The catheter features a magnetic tip for external electromagnetic steering and uses a cylindrical array of magnetic sensors for real-time location estimation. A mathematical model for magnetic localization is presented, with real-time application using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The integration of magnetic steering and sensing is showcased through real-time navigation experiments. The system components, including the magnet, catheter design, feeding mechanism, sensor array, and Helmholtz coils, are detailed. Experimental results using a prototype MSRC demonstrate an average position estimation error of 0.95 mm after calibration. The system successfully navigates vascular phantoms using actuated magnetic steering and sensing, highlighting its potential to minimize x-ray exposure during PAD surgeries.


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