An X-ray analysis of the piezo-electric effect in quartz



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It seems most remarkable that all crystals of the same chemical content and possessing the same physical properties have exactly the same arrangement of atoms, no matter where they are found. It is also a remarkable fact that scientists are unravelling and determining with high precision the atomic structures of even the most complicated groups of crystalline bodies, i. e., the triclinic group. X-rays are the means, not only of locating the various atoms with relation to one another in crystalline bodies, but also the means of determining the distribution of electrons in the atoms of various elements, and the means of determining the various stages of excitation, energy levels, etc., of the atoms. The ability of X-rays to ionize gases, i. e., to eject electrons from atoms, is one method in use of detecting their presence, in the study of crystal structure. Another and somewhat more convenient method of detecting the presence of X-rays in the study of crystal structure is by the use of photographic plates or films; i. e., employing the photo-chemical effect of X-rays. It now appears only a matter of time before X-ray tubes will be made to operate at voltages as high as 7,000,000; and that before long X-rays may be produced by employing the electrostatic differences found in thunderstorms, which are estimated to be in the class of 15,000,000 volts. If this feat is accomplished, X-rays will be produced which will have the same wave lengths as cosmic rays, which will no doubt enable the development of the correct absorption theory for cosmic rays. It is apparent that X-rays are the most powerful tool known to man for the investigation of the unknown in the physical world. It is not surprising then that workers are examining the effects on the lattice structures of various crystalline bodies of deformations due to heat, mechanical strains, and other causes, by means of X-rays. The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour of the crystal lattice of quartz when it is vibrating under the piezo-electric effect