Integrated electro-analytical biosensor array
A biosensor pixel for measuring current that flows through the electrode surface in response to electrochemical interactions and a biosensor array architecture that includes such biosensor pixels. The biosensor pixel includes an electrode transducer configured to measure a current generated by electrochemical interactions occurring at a recognition layer placed directly on top of it in response to an electrical voltage placed across an electrode transducer-electrolyte interface. The biosensor pixel further includes a trans-impedance amplifier connected to the electrode transducer, where the trans-impedance amplifier is configured to convert the current into a voltage signal as the electrochemical interactions occur. Additionally, the biosensor pixel includes a 1-bit comparator coupled to the trans-impedance amplifier and a 1-bit digital-to-analog converter coupled to the 1-bit comparator, where the 1-bit digital-to-analog converter injects different levels of charge into an input of the trans-impedance amplifier at each cycle based on an output of the 1-bit comparator.