Type Iax Supernovae: A New Class Of Stellar Explosion

dc.contributor.utaustinauthorSilverman, Jeffrey M.en_US
dc.creatorFoley, Ryan J.en_US
dc.creatorChallis, Peter J.en_US
dc.creatorChornock, Ryanen_US
dc.creatorGaneshalingam, Mohanen_US
dc.creatorLi, W.en_US
dc.creatorMarion, G. H.en_US
dc.creatorMorrell, Nidia I.en_US
dc.creatorPignata, G.en_US
dc.creatorStritzinger, Maximillian D.en_US
dc.creatorSilverman, Jeffrey M.en_US
dc.creatorWang, X.en_US
dc.creatorAnderson, J. P.en_US
dc.creatorFilippenko, Alexei V.en_US
dc.creatorFreedman, W. L.en_US
dc.creatorHamuy, Marioen_US
dc.creatorJha, Saurabh W.en_US
dc.creatorKirshner, Robert P.en_US
dc.creatorMcCully, C.en_US
dc.creatorPersson, S. E.en_US
dc.creatorPhillips, Mark M.en_US
dc.creatorReichart, D. E.en_US
dc.creatorSoderberg, Alicia M.en_US
dc.description.abstractWe describe observed properties of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe Iax), consisting of SNe observationally similar to its prototypical member, SN 2002cx. The class currently has 25 members, and we present optical photometry and/ or optical spectroscopy for most of them. SNe Iax are spectroscopically similar to SNe Ia, but have lower maximum-light velocities (2000 less than or similar to broken vertical bar v broken vertical bar less than or similar to 8000 km s(-1)), typically lower peak magnitudes (-14.2 >= M-V,M-peak greater than or similar to -18.9 mag), and most have hot photospheres. Relative to SNe Ia, SNe Iax have low luminosities for their light-curve shape. There is a correlation between luminosity and light-curve shape, similar to that of SNe Ia, but offset from that of SNe Ia and with larger scatter. Despite a host-galaxy morphology distribution that is highly skewed to late-type galaxies without any SNe Iax discovered in elliptical galaxies, there are several indications that the progenitor stars are white dwarfs (WDs): evidence of C/ O burning in their maximum-light spectra, low (typically similar to 0.5 M-circle dot) ejecta masses, strong Fe lines in their late-time spectra, a lack of X-ray detections, and deep limits on massive stars and star formation at the SN sites. However, two SNe Iax show strong He lines in their spectra. The progenitor system and explosion model that best fits all of the data is a binary system of a C/ O WD that accretes matter from a He star and has a deflagration. At least some of the time, this explosion will not disrupt the WD. The small number of SNe in this class prohibit a detailed analysis of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the entire class. We estimate that in a given volume there are 31(-13)(+17) SNe Iax for every 100 SNe Ia, and for every 1M(circle dot) of iron generated by SNe Ia at z = 0, SNe Iax generate similar to 0.036M(circle dot). Being the largest class of peculiar SNe, thousands of SNe Iax will be discovered by LSST. Future detailed observations of SNe Iax should further our understanding of both their progenitor systems and explosions as well as those of SNe Ia.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipClay Fellowshipen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF AST-1211196, AST-0908886, AST-1211916, AST-0306969, AST-0607438, AST-1008343en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipGary & Cynthia Bengier, the Richard & Rhoda Goldman Funden_US
dc.description.sponsorshipChristopher R. Redlich Funden_US
dc.description.sponsorshipTABASGO Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDanish Agency for Science and Technology and Innovationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMillennium Center for Supernova Science P10-064-Fen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPrograma Iniciativa Cientifica Milenio de MIDEPLANen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipCONICYT through FONDECYT 3110142, 11090421en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF CAREER AST-0847157en_US
dc.identifier.citationFoley, Ryan J., P. J. Challis, R. Chornock, M. Ganeshalingam, W. Li, G. H. Marion, N. I. Morrell et al. "Type Iax supernovae: a new class of stellar explosion." The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 767, No. 1 (Apr., 2013): 57.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofserialAstrophysical Journalen_US
dc.rightsAdministrative deposit of works to Texas ScholarWorks: This works author(s) is or was a University faculty member, student or staff member; this article is already available through open access or the publisher allows a PDF version of the article to be freely posted online. The library makes the deposit as a matter of fair use (for scholarly, educational, and research purposes), and to preserve the work and further secure public access to the works of the University.en_US
dc.subjectsupernovae: generalen_US
dc.subjectsupernovae: individual (sn 1991bj, sn 1999ax, snen_US
dc.subject2002bp, sn 2002cx, sn 2003gq, sn 2004cs, sn 2004gw, sn 2005p, sn 2005cc,en_US
dc.subjectsn 2005hk, sn 2006hn, sn 2007j, sn 2007ie, sn 2007qd, sn 2008a, snen_US
dc.subject2008ae, sn 2008ge, sn 2008ha, sn 2009j, sn 2009ku, sn 2010ae, sn 2010el,en_US
dc.subjectsn 2011ay, sn 2011ce, sn 2012z)en_US
dc.subjectchandrasekhar mass modelsen_US
dc.subjecthelium shell detonationsen_US
dc.subjectphotometry dataen_US
dc.subjectaccreting white-dwarfsen_US
dc.subjectlight curvesen_US
dc.subjectsn 2005hken_US
dc.subjectimage subtractionen_US
dc.subjecttime distributionen_US
dc.subjectastronomy & astrophysicsen_US
dc.titleType Iax Supernovae: A New Class Of Stellar Explosionen_US

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