Distribution circuit multi-time-scale simulation tool for wind turbine and photovoltaic integration analysis




Chirapongsananurak, Pisitpol

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Power system phenomena can be characterized into three types according to their time scales. Firstly, electromagnetic transient phenomena, such as the effects of capacitor switching and lightning strikes, have a time scale range of microseconds to milliseconds. Secondly, electromechanical transient phenomena, such as short-circuit faults on distribution circuits and inertial and frequency response of the power system, have a time scale in the order of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. Lastly, quasi-steady-state phenomena, such as voltage regulation, voltage unbalance, and wind speed and solar irradiance variation, have a time scale of several minutes and longer. Currently, because the time scales of these phenomena vary greatly from fractions of cycles to a few hours, only power system simulation tools for specific time scales are available. The objective of this research is to develop an integrated distribution circuit multi-time-scale simulation tool designed specifically for applications in wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) integration analysis. This research contributes a multi-time-scale simulation tool for analysis and control of voltage regulation due to the variability of wind speed, solar irradiance, and load consumption, determining the maximum penetration of wind turbines and PVs, and sizing of energy storage for peak load shaving and power variability control. The proposed multi-time-scale simulation tool developed in MATLAB includes several distribution circuit components such as voltage sources, distribution lines, transformers, loads, capacitor banks, wind turbines, and PVs. Each equipment model in the proposed simulation tool consists of three models in different time scales, i.e., steady-state, electromechanical transient, and electromagnetic transient models. Therefore, the proposed tool is able to perform a long-term simulation involving power system phenomena spreading across time scales. Because distribution circuits are usually unbalanced, the proposed tool employs distribution circuit models with all three phases represented. The test circuit used to demonstrate the multi-time-scale simulation approach is the IEEE four-node test feeder with wind turbines and PVs connected at the feeder end. The results show that the proposed multi-time-scale simulation tool is able to simulate and analyze long-term power system phenomena spreading across time scales.


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