High-Resolution H-Band Spectroscopy Of Be Stars With SDSS-III/Apogee. I. New Be Stars, Line Identifications, And Line Profiles




Chojnowski, S. Drew
Whelan, David G.
Wisniewski, John P.
Majewski, Steven R.
Hall, Matthew
Shetrone, Matthew
Beaton, Rachael
Burton, Adam
Damke, Guillermo
Eikenberry, Steve

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R similar to 22, 500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H I Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by similar to 6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Delta v(p)) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H I and nonhydrogen emission lines. H I Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of similar to 2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Delta v(p) toward the weaker Br12-Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe II emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe II and H I Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C I 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Delta v(p) compared to the Br11-Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 angstrom and 16781 angstrom remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe II 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe II 16878, never exhibit any evidence of shell absorption, even when the H I lines are clearly shell-dominated. The first known example of a quasi-triple-peaked Br11 line profile is reported for HD 253659, one of several stars exhibiting intra- and/or extraspecies V/R and radial velocity variation within individual spectra. Br11 profiles are presented for all discussed stars, as are full APOGEE spectra for a portion of the sample.



LCSH Subject Headings


Chojnowski, S. Drew, David G. Whelan, John P. Wisniewski, Steven R. Majewski, Matthew Hall, Matthew Shetrone, Rachael Beaton et al. >High-Resolution H-Band Spectroscopy of Be Stars With SDSS-III/APOGEE. I. New Be Stars, Line Identifications, and Line Profiles.> The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 149, No. 1 (Jan., 2015): 7.