Hydraulic fracture mechanism in unconsolidated formations
Most models developed for hydraulic fracturing in unconsolidated sands are based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) and tensile fracture (Mode I fracture). However, in unconsolidated sand formations the field data shows that LEFM based models cannot properly predict the fracture behavior. Hydraulic fracture lab experiments in a true triaxial setup which was made as a part of this study are designed to investigate the failure mechanism around the crack tip in unconsolidated sands and effects of fluid rheology, leak off, and stress state are investigated. The results show that two mechanisms of tensile and shear failure are involved in fracture propagation in unconsolidated sands and depending on the fracturing fluid rheology and stress state of the formation one or both of them can happen at the crack tip. Several experiments with different fracturing fluids, rates, and different stress boundary conditions are categorized into two major categories based on whether we have a fracture or not. A subsequent categorization is used to categorize the fractured cases into Tensile Failure, Shear Failure and Mixed Failure categories. First the experimental observations are presented and subsequently observations are analyzed and compared in order to explain the observations and conclusions. ;Tensile failure category is happening in medium viscosity fracturing fluids in the order of 20,000 cP viscosity at unit 1/s shear rate. Shear failure category is mostly taking place in low viscosity fluids (200 cP viscosity at unit 1/s shear rate). Mixed mode fracturing is happening in high viscosity fluids (70,000 cP viscosity at unit 1/s shear rate) with high stress anisotropy. However, the same fluid will give a No Fracture result in the case of isotropic or near isotropic stress state. It is shown that higher stress anisotropy increases the tendency of shear failure and at the same time, the resulting fracture will propagate in a preferential direction. However, tilting and branching might happen due to high stress anisotropy which is more pronounced in case of thicker fluids. It was also observed that in case of vaseline injection, stress anisotropy decreases treatment breakdown pressure.