Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: the Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

dc.contributor.utaustinauthorCochran, William D.en_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorMacQueen, Phillip J.en_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorEndl, Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorRobertson, Paulen_US
dc.creatorMarcy, Geoffrey W.en_US
dc.creatorIsaacson, Howarden_US
dc.creatorHoward, Andrew W.en_US
dc.creatorRowe, Jason F.en_US
dc.creatorJenkins, Jon M.en_US
dc.creatorBryson, Stephen T.en_US
dc.creatorLatham, David W.en_US
dc.creatorHowell, Steve B.en_US
dc.creatorGautier, Thomas N., IIIen_US
dc.creatorBatalha, Natalie M.en_US
dc.creatorRogers, Leslieen_US
dc.creatorCiardi, Daviden_US
dc.creatorFischer, Debra A.en_US
dc.creatorGilliland, Ronald L.en_US
dc.creatorKjeldsen, Hansen_US
dc.creatorChristensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgenen_US
dc.creatorHuber, Danielen_US
dc.creatorChaplin, William J.en_US
dc.creatorBasu, Sarbanien_US
dc.creatorBuchhave, Lars A.en_US
dc.creatorQuinn, Samuel N.en_US
dc.creatorBorucki, William J.en_US
dc.creatorKoch, David G.en_US
dc.creatorHunter, Rogeren_US
dc.creatorCaldwell, Douglas A.en_US
dc.creatorVan Cleve, Jeffreyen_US
dc.creatorKolbl, Reaen_US
dc.creatorWeiss, Lauren M.en_US
dc.creatorPetigura, Eriken_US
dc.creatorSeager, Saraen_US
dc.creatorMorton, Timothyen_US
dc.creatorJohnson, John Asheren_US
dc.creatorBallard, Sarahen_US
dc.creatorBurke, Chrisen_US
dc.creatorCochran, William D.en_US
dc.creatorEndl, Michaelen_US
dc.creatorMacQueen, Phillipen_US
dc.creatorEverett, Mark E.en_US
dc.creatorLissauer, Jack J.en_US
dc.creatorFord, Eric B.en_US
dc.creatorTorres, Guillermoen_US
dc.creatorFressin, Francoisen_US
dc.creatorBrown, Timothy M.en_US
dc.creatorSteffen, Jason H.en_US
dc.creatorCharbonneau, Daviden_US
dc.creatorBasri, Gibor S.en_US
dc.creatorSasselov, Dimitar D.en_US
dc.creatorWinn, Joshuaen_US
dc.creatorSanchis-Ojeda, Robertoen_US
dc.creatorChristiansen, Jessieen_US
dc.creatorAdams, Elisabethen_US
dc.creatorHenze, Christopheren_US
dc.creatorDupree, Andreaen_US
dc.creatorFabrycky, Daniel C.en_US
dc.creatorFortney, Jonathan J.en_US
dc.creatorTarter, Jillen_US
dc.creatorHolman, Matthew J.en_US
dc.creatorTenenbaum, Peteren_US
dc.creatorShporer, Avien_US
dc.creatorLucas, Philip W.en_US
dc.creatorWelsh, William F.en_US
dc.creatorOrosz, Jerome A.en_US
dc.creatorBedding, T. R.en_US
dc.creatorCampante, T. L.en_US
dc.creatorDavies, G. R.en_US
dc.creatorElsworth, Y.en_US
dc.creatorHandberg, R.en_US
dc.creatorHekker, S.en_US
dc.creatorKaroff, C.en_US
dc.creatorKawaler, S. D.en_US
dc.creatorLund, M. N.en_US
dc.creatorLundkvist, M.en_US
dc.creatorMetcalfe, T. S.en_US
dc.creatorMiglio, A.en_US
dc.creatorAguirre, V.en_US
dc.creatorSilva Stello, D.en_US
dc.creatorWhite, T. R.en_US
dc.creatorBoss, Alanen_US
dc.creatorDevore, Ednaen_US
dc.creatorGould, Alanen_US
dc.creatorPrsa, Andrejen_US
dc.creatorAgol, Ericen_US
dc.creatorBarclay, Thomasen_US
dc.creatorCoughlin, Jeffen_US
dc.creatorBrugamyer, Eriken_US
dc.creatorMullally, Fergalen_US
dc.creatorQuintana, Elisa V.en_US
dc.creatorStill, Martinen_US
dc.creatorThompson, Susan E.en_US
dc.creatorMorrison, Daviden_US
dc.creatorTwicken, Joseph D.en_US
dc.creatorDesert, Jean-Michelen_US
dc.creatorCarter, Joshen_US
dc.creatorCrepp, Justin R.en_US
dc.creatorHebrard, Guillaumeen_US
dc.creatorSanterne, Alexandreen_US
dc.creatorMoutou, Claireen_US
dc.creatorSobeck, Charlieen_US
dc.creatorHudgins, Douglasen_US
dc.creatorHaas, Michael R.en_US
dc.creatorRobertson, Paulen_US
dc.creatorLillo-Box, Jorgeen_US
dc.creatorBarrado, Daviden_US
dc.description.abstractWe report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities (FPPs) for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have an FPP under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets are smaller than three times the size of Earth. For 16 planets, the Doppler signal was securely detected, providing a direct measurement of the planet's mass. For the other 26 planets we provide either marginal mass measurements or upper limits to their masses and densities; in many cases we can rule out a rocky composition. We identify six planets with densities above 5 g cm(-3), suggesting a mostly rocky interior for them. Indeed, the only planets that are compatible with a purely rocky composition are smaller than similar to 2 R-circle plus. Larger planets evidently contain a larger fraction of low-density material (H, He, and H2O).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA Science Mission Directorateen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipW. M. Keck Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDanish National Research Foundation DNRF106en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipASTERISK project (ASTERoseismic Investigations with SONG and Kepler)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Research Council 267864en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF AST-1105930, AST-1109928, AST-0645416en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNetherlands organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framewrok Programme/ERC 338251en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA ADAP12-0172, NNX08AR04G, NNX12AF73G, NNX09AG09Aen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKepler Participating Scientist Program (PSP) NNX12AC76Gen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Research Council/European Community 239953en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationen_US
dc.identifier.citationMarcy, Geoffrey W., Howard Isaacson, Andrew W. Howard, Jason F. Rowe, Jon M. Jenkins, Stephen T. Bryson, David W. Latham et al. "Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: the transition from gaseous to rocky planets." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 210, No. 2 (Feb., 2014): 20.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofserialAstrophysical Journal Supplement Seriesen_US
dc.rightsAdministrative deposit of works to Texas ScholarWorks: This works author(s) is or was a University faculty member, student or staff member; this article is already available through open access or the publisher allows a PDF version of the article to be freely posted online. The library makes the deposit as a matter of fair use (for scholarly, educational, and research purposes), and to preserve the work and further secure public access to the works of the University.en_US
dc.subjectplanetary systemsen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: detectionen_US
dc.subjectstars: individualen_US
dc.subject(kepler-25, kepler-37, kepler-48, kepler-68, kepler-93, kepler-94,en_US
dc.subjectkepler-95, kepler-96, kepler-97, kepler-98, kepler-99, kepler-100,en_US
dc.subjectkepler-102, kepler-103, kepler-106, kepler-109, kepler-113, kepler-131,en_US
dc.subjectkepler-406, kepler-407, kepler-409)en_US
dc.subjecttechniques: photometricen_US
dc.subjecttechniques: radial velocitiesen_US
dc.subjectcandidate host starsen_US
dc.subjectearth-sized planeten_US
dc.subjectsolar-type starsen_US
dc.subjecttiming variationsen_US
dc.subjectvelocity measurementsen_US
dc.subjectbulk compositionen_US
dc.subjectfalse positivesen_US
dc.subjectastronomy & astrophysicsen_US
dc.titleMasses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: the Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planetsen_US

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