An Analysis Of The Environments Of Fu Orionis Objects With Herschel

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Date

2013-08

Authors

Green, Joel D.
Evans, Neal J.
Kospal, Agnes
Herczeg, Gregory
Quanz, Sascha P.
Henning, Thomas
van Kempen, Tim A.
Lee, Jeong-Eun
Dunham, Michael M.
Meeus, Gwendolyn

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Abstract

We present Herschel-HIFI, SPIRE, and PACS 50-670 mu m imaging and spectroscopy of six FU Orionis-type objects and candidates (FU Orionis, V1735 Cyg, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, V1331 Cyg, and HBC 722), ranging in outburst date from 1936 to 2010, from the "FOOSH" (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel) program, as well as ancillary results from Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In their system properties (L-bol, T-bol, and line emission), we find that FUors are in a variety of evolutionary states. Additionally, some FUors have features of both Class I and II sources: warm continuum consistent with Class II sources, but rotational line emission typical of Class I, far higher than Class II sources of similar mass/luminosity. Combining several classification techniques, we find an evolutionary sequence consistent with previous mid-IR indicators. We detect [O I] in every source at luminosities consistent with Class 0/I protostars, much greater than in Class II disks. We detect transitions of 13CO (J(up) of 5-8) around two sources (V1735 Cyg and HBC 722) but attribute them to nearby protostars. Of the remaining sources, three (FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1331 Cyg) exhibit only low-lying CO, but one (V1057 Cyg) shows CO up to J = 23 -> 22 and evidence for H2O and OH emission, at strengths typical of protostars rather than T Tauri stars. Rotational temperatures for "cool" CO components range from 20 to 81 K, for similar to 10(50) total CO molecules. We detect [C I] and [N II] primarily as diffuse emission.

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Green, Joel D., Neal J. Evans, �gnes K�sp�l, Gregory Herczeg, Sascha P. Quanz, Thomas Henning, Tim A. Van Kempen et al. "An analysis of the environments of FU orionis objects with Herschel." The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 772, No. 2 (Aug., 2013): 117.