Stroke Awareness and Proposed Stroke Health Campaign in Mombasa, Kenya

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2021

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Abstract

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a significant source of disability worldwide. With two-thirds of stroke mortalities occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need for researchers to comprehend the current understanding of stroke and its related factors in this region. Since stroke knowledge in the general public has been shown to mitigate the incidence of stroke and improve timely treatment-seeking behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to conduct 1) a stroke awareness assessment in Mombasa County, Kenya, and 2) a literature review of stroke interventions and health campaigns. The stroke awareness assessment surveyed 155 community members, collecting demographic data, perceptions, and knowledge about risk factors, warning signs, and response for stroke. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to analyze significant associations between knowledge of stroke and demographic characteristics. Findings from this study were that generally, the respondents were aware that stroke risk can be increased by poor lifestyle habits and that stroke needs to be treated at a hospital; however, their understanding of stroke and its warning signs and specific risk factors were fairly low. Majority of this sample had completed higher education but still scored low on awareness thus counties surrounding Mombasa County with lower proportions of high education may have substantially less stroke knowledge. These findings demonstrate a need to improve response time and outcomes of stroke, while reducing its prevalence. A review of the literature on stroke campaigns highlighted four main types of prevention methods that have been implemented in various countries and regions: mass media campaigns, educational presentations, health screenings, and multi-modal community programs. Through exploration of these campaigns, an optimal stroke prevention campaign for Mombasa would combine elements of a multi-modal community approach and a mass media campaign due to the intensive and wide-spread nature of these methods.

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