Civil-military relations and monarchical survival : a comparative analysis of Morocco and Jordan
The literature on regime persistence in the Arab world, particularly when it comes to the monarchies, has missed many crucial elements. Specifically, the role of the military within the elite coalition and the factors that lead to variation on this variable have not been adequately studied. In this report, two cases of persistent monarchies – Morocco and Jordan - will be examined. This study will focus on the development of the military establishments in these two cases, as well as their current state of civil-military relations. Using an institutionalist approach, the study finds that civil-military relations in both regimes is a direct outcome of the monarchy’s role, which, in turn, rests on three factors: the historical legacy of the monarchy in state formation, the appeal of the monarch to a large proportion of the population, and the institutional mechanisms utilized by the monarchy to maintain control over their military establishments. The monarchical role in the development of the military subordinates the armed forces, as well as lessens their professionalization as they become less representative and more politicized institutions. Subordination of the military as a strategy of the monarchy is thus highlighted as an important variable in the persistence of this type of authoritarian regime.