On the Interface Between LENS® Deposited Stainless Steel 304L Repair Geometry and Cast or Machined Components
Laser Engineered Net Shaping™ (LENS®) is being evaluated for use as a metal component repair/modification process. A component of the evaluation is to better understand the characteristics of the interface between LENS deposited material and the substrate on which it is deposited. A processing and metallurgical evaluation was made on LENS processed material fabricated for component qualification tests. A process parameter evaluation was used to determine optimum build parameters and these parameters were used in the fabrication of tensile test specimens to study the characteristics of the interface between LENS deposited material and several types of substrates. Analyses of the interface included mechanical properties, microstructure, and metallurgical integrity. Test samples were determined for a variety of geometric configurations associated with interfaces between LENS deposited material and both wrought base material or previously deposited LENS material. Thirteen different interface configurations were fabricated for evaluation representing a spectrum of deposition conditions from complete part build, to hybrid substrate-LENS builds, to repair builds for damaged or re-designed housings. Good mechanical properties and full density were observed for all configurations. When tested to failure, fracture occurred by ductile microvoid coalescence. The repair and hybrid interfaces showed the same metallurgical integrity as, and had properties similar to, monolithic LENS deposits.