Eliminating reciprocity constraints in radiating and scattering systems with spatio temporal modulation

Andrea Alu
Yakir Hadad
Jason Christopher Soric
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United States Patent and Trademark Office

A non-reciprocal device using a space-time modulation scheme. By applying the space-time modulation scheme, reciprocity in radiation and scattering scenarios is prevented. Such a scheme utilizes a linear system with simple, compact and inexpensive electronic components compared to the current use of bulky duplexers and non-reciprocal magnet based phase shifters to provide non-reciprocity. One such linear system involves traveling-wave antennas loaded with voltage dependent capacitors that are modulated in space and time thereby allowing the antenna to transmit with high directivity in a certain direction and not receive from that direction. Another linear system involves a resonant metasurface characterized by transverse spatiotemporal gradients, where the spatiotemporal gradients include periodically modulated impedances thereby causing a non-reciprocal transmission response. In this manner, a signal that propagates and impinges on the surface at a given direction will be fully transmitted while a signal propagating from the complementary direction will be fully reflected.