Galaxy Kinematics With Virus-P: The Dark Matter Halo Of M87
We present two-dimensional stellar kinematics of M87 out to R = 238 '' taken with the integral field spectrograph VIRUS-P. We run a large set of axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical models and find clear evidence for a massive dark matter halo. While a logarithmic parameterization for the dark matter halo is preferred, we do not constrain the dark matter scale radius for a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and therefore cannot rule it out. Our best-fit logarithmic models return an enclosed dark matter fraction of 17.2(-5.0)(+5.0)% within one effective radius (R-e congruent to 100 ''), rising to 49.4(-8.8)(+7.2)% within 2 R-e. Existing SAURON data (R <= 13 ''), and globular cluster (GC) kinematic data covering 145 '' <= R <= 554 '' complete the kinematic coverage to R = 47 kpc (similar to 5R(e)). At this radial distance, the logarithmic dark halo comprises 85.3(-2.4)(+2.5)% of the total enclosed mass of 5.7(-0.9)(+1.3) x 10(12) M-circle dot making M87 one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. Our best-fit logarithmic dynamical models return a stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of 9.1(-0.2)(+0.2) (V band), a dark halo circular velocity of 800(-25)(+75) km s(-1), and a dark halo scale radius of 36(-3)(+7) kpc. The stellar M/L, assuming an NFW dark halo, is well constrained to 8.20(-0.10)(+0.05) (V band). The stars in M87 are found to be radially anisotropic out to R congruent to 0.5 R-e, then isotropic or slightly tangentially anisotropic to our last stellar data point at R = 2.4 R-e where the anisotropy of the stars and GCs are in excellent agreement. The GCs then become radially anisotropic in the last two modeling bins at R = 3.4 R-e and R = 4.8 R-e. As one of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, constraints on both the mass distribution of M87 and anisotropy of its kinematic components strongly inform our theories of early-type galaxy formation and evolution in dense environments.