Regional Geology of the Low-Permeability Gas-Bearing Cleveland Formation, Western Anadarko Basin, Texas Panhandle: Lithologic and Depositional Facies, Structure, and Sequence Stratigraphy

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Hentz, Tucker F.

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The Upper Pennsylvanian (lower Missourian) Cleveland Formation produces gas from low-permeability ("tight") sandstone reservoirs in the western Anadarko Basin of the northeastern Texas Panhandle. In this six-county region, these reservoirs had produced more than 412 Bcf of natural gas through December 31, 1989. Because of their typically low permeability, the Cleveland sandstones require acidizing and hydraulic fracture treatment to produce gas at economic rates.

Since 1982, the Gas Research Institute has supported geological investigations throughout the United States to develop the scientific and technological knowledge for producing from low-permeability, gas-bearing sandstones. As part of this program and the GRI Tight Gas Sands project, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been conducting research on low-permeability sandstones in the Cleveland Formation and on several other sandstone units of similar character in Texas and Wyoming. This effort is part of a broader program to increase the understanding and ultimate utilization of gas resources in these low-permeability formations through regional and field-specific geology, formation evaluation, and reservoir engineering.

This report summarizes findings on the regional geology, depositional setting, sequence stratigraphy, and petrology of the Cleveland Formation. Geological research on the Cleveland began with an effort to choose a formation in which to drill Staged Field Experiment (SFE) well number 4, the latest in a series of SFE wells drilled since 1986 to conduct geological and engineering research on low-permeability gas reservoirs. Although the Cleveland Formation was not chosen for SFE No. 4, investigation of this low-permeability, gas-bearing sandstone continued with the drilling of cooperative wells in the unit. Because the Cleveland Formation contains an estimated 38 Tcf of gas in place, development of advanced technology and understanding that can be applied to this and other tight gas formations will have a positive impact on gas supply by improving gas recovery and lowering completion costs.


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