The relationship between homework and academic achievement
Homework has been a topic of interest in the public, research and educational arenas throughout the last decades. Yet, researchers disagree on the influence of homework on academic achievement and its value as an instructional technique. Similarly, educators, parents and policymakers have debated on the appropriate amount of homework that students should have, if any. This report reviews the literature on the relationship between homework and academic achievement. Starting from an overview of the historic views of homework in the US and the early literature on the topic, this report provides a thorough analysis of recent literature (post-1980 studies), including factors mediating the effect of homework on academic achievement, such as gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age and grade level, parental involvement, aspirations and attitudes, teachers’ attitudes, cognitive ability, homework time, motivation and social interactions. The report concludes with implications and suggestions for practice and education policy.