Study on the feasibility of using electromagnetic methods for fracture diagnostics
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This thesis explores two ways of developing a fracture diagnostics tool capable of estimating hydraulic fracture propped length and orientation. Both approaches make use of an electrically conductive proppant. The fabrication of an electrically conductive proppant is believed to be possible and an option currently on the market is calcined petroleum coke. The first approach for tool development was based on principles of antenna resonance whereas the second approach was based on low frequency magnetic induction. The former approach had limited success due to the lack of resonant features at the stipulated operating conditions. Low frequency induction is a more promising approach as electromagnetic fields showed measurable changes that were dependent on fracture length in simulations. The operation of a logging tool was simulated and the data showed differences in the magnetic field magnitude ranging from 2% to 107% between fracture sizes of 20m, 50m, 80m, and 100m. Continuing research of the topic should focus not only on simulating more diverse fracture scenarios but also on developing an inversion scheme necessary for interpreting field data.